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Table 2 Timing of driver licensure in relation to demographic characteristics, sample of 18- to 20-year-olds, United States, 2012

From: Driver licensing and reasons for delaying licensure among young adults ages 18-20, United States, 2012

  Licensed within 12 months of state minimum age Licensed before 18 th birthday
  Unadjusted % Adjusted prevalence ratio* (95% CI) Unadjusted % Adjusted prevalence ratio* (95% CI)
  All (n = 1,039) 44   54  
Age (years)     
  18 (n = 329) 45 1 [Reference] 56 1 [Reference]
  19 (n = 359) 42 1.01 (0.80–1.27) 52 0.95 (0.79–1.15)
  20 (n = 351) 45 1.09 (0.88–1.35) 53 1.02 (0.86–1.21)
Sex     
  Male (n = 468) 42 1 [Reference] 51 1 [Reference]
  Female (n = 571) 46 1.01 (0.84–1.21) 57 1.05 (0.91–1.22)
Census region     
  Northeast (n = 193) 48 1 [Reference] 50 1 [Reference]
  Midwest (n = 261) 56 1.21 (0.95–1.54) 68 1.48 (1.19–1.85)
  South (n = 316) 38 1.01 (0.77–1.32) 51 1.30 (1.03–1.63)
  West (n = 269) 39 0.98 (0.74–1.29) 49 1.23 (0.97–1.55)
Place of residence at age 16     
  Out in the country (n = 136) 57 1 [Reference] 69 1 [Reference]
  Small town (n = 212) 42 0.87 (0.63–1.20) 50 0.82 (0.64–1.05)
  Medium-sized town (n = 246) 45 0.84 (0.62–1.15) 56 0.84 (0.66–1.07)
  Small city (n = 224) 47 0.97 (0.71–1.33) 54 0.89 (0.70–1.14)
  Large city (n = 215) 34 0.80 (0.56–1.14) 48 0.86 (0.67–1.11)
Household income     
  <$20,000 (n = 200) 16 0.28 (0.17–0.47) 25 0.37 (0.25–0.55)
  $20,000 – $39,999 (n = 230) 27 0.50 (0.36–0.71) 34 0.54 (0.41–0.70)
  $40,000 – $59,999 (n = 159) 44 0.72 (0.54–0.95) 52 0.68 (0.54–0.85)
  $60,000 – $99,999 (n = 233) 52 0.81 (0.65–1.01) 64 0.81 (0.68–0.96)
  $100,000+ (n = 217) 67 1 [Reference] 79 1 [Reference]
Race & ethnicity     
  Non-Hispanic white (n = 632) 56 1 [Reference] 67 1 [Reference]
  Non-Hispanic black (n = 96) 24 0.57 (0.36–0.90) 37 0.67 (0.48–0.93)
  Non-Hispanic other, incl. 2+ races (n = 90) 46 0.94 (0.69–1.28) 51 0.87 (0.67–1.13)
  Hispanic (n = 221) 21 0.57 (0.38–0.87) 29 0.60 (0.45–0.81)
  1. Notes: Missing values for timing of licensure (n = 23; 3% of weighted responses) were imputed 20 times and averaged.
  2. *Adjusted prevalence ratios estimated using multivariable logistic regression followed by marginal standardization.
  3. 6 respondents with missing data on place of residence at age 16 were excluded.