Skip to main content

Table 4 Cross-state associations between suicide rates (total and method-specific) and household firearm ownership and antidepressants prescription rates, 2001-2005

From: Explaining geographic patterns of suicide in the US: the role of firearms and antidepressants

  All suicide Firearm suicide Nonfirearm suicide
  IRR* 95% CI P-value IRR* 95% CI P-value IRR* 95% CI P-value
Crude analyses          
NonTCA^:TCA ratio 0.85 (0.76, 0.95) 0.0040 0.69 (0.57, 0.84) 0.0002 1.07 (0.96, 1.18) 0.2270
Multivariate analyses          
Household firearm ownership 1.29 (1.18, 1.40) <.0001 1.67 (1.49, 1.88) <.0001 1.04 (0.94, 1.16) 0.4441
NonTCA^:TCA ratio 1.02 (0.91, 1.14) 0.7462 1.05 (0.90, 1.22) 0.5392 1.02 (0.89, 1.17) 0.8198
% Population living in urban area 1.09 (1.01, 1.19) 0.0293 1.14 (1.02, 1.27) 0.0211 1.08 (0.98, 1.20) 0.1407
Median income 0.99 (0.95, 1.02) 0.4770 0.97 (0.93, 1.02) 0.2758 1.01 (0.96, 1.07) 0.6421
Unemployment rate 1.01 (0.98, 1.03) 0.6227 0.99 (0.96, 1.03) 0.6932 1.01 (0.98, 1.05) 0.5231
  1. *IRR for Household Firearm Ownership and Antidepressant Prescriptions are the relative increase in suicides for one standard deviation away from the mean rate.
  2. ^Non-TCA are primarily SSRIs (SNRIs constitute the second most commonly prescribed class).
  3. Abbreviations: IRR, Incidence Rate Ratio; CI, Confidence Intervals; TCA, Tricyclic Antidepressants.