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Table 5 Cross-county associations between suicide rates (total and method-specific) and household firearm ownership and antidepressants prescription rates, 2001-2005

From: Explaining geographic patterns of suicide in the US: the role of firearms and antidepressants

  All suicide Firearm suicide Nonfirearm suicide
  IRR* 95% CI P-value IRR* 95% CI P-value IRR* 95% CI P-value
Crude analyses          
NonTCA^:TCA ratio 0.90 (0.86, 0.93) <.0001 0.80 (0.75, 0.86) <.0001 1.00 (0.96, 1.04) 0.9867
Multivariate analyses          
Household firearm ownership 1.23 (1.18, 1.28) <.0001 1.60 (1.52, 1.70) <.0001 1.00 (0.95, 1.05) 0.9658
NonTCA^:TCA ratio 1.01 (0.96, 1.06) 0.6820 1.01 (0.95, 1.08) 0.7400 1.03 (0.97, 1.09) 0.3802
% Population living in urban area 0.98 (0.94, 1.02) 0.3824 0.92 (0.87, 0.97) 0.0019 1.03 (0.98, 1.08) 0.3042
Median income 0.92 (0.87, 0.96) 0.0005 0.87 (0.81, 0.93) <.0001 0.95 (0.90, 1.01) 0.0997
Unemployment rate 0.96 (0.93, 1.00) 0.0453 0.97 (0.92, 1.02) 0.2156 0.95 (0.91, 0.99) 0.0279
  1. *IRR for Household Firearm Ownership and Antidepressant Prescriptions are the relative increase in suicides for one standard deviation away.
  2. ^Non-TCA are primarily SSRIs (SNRIs constitute the second most commonly prescribed class).
  3. Abbreviations: IRR, Incidence Rate Ratio; CI, Confidence Intervals; TCA, Tricyclic Antidepressants from the mean rate.