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Table 4 Risk factors for interpersonal violence in American Indian/Alaska native children, women, and elders, by violence type

From: Family and partner interpersonal violence among American Indians/Alaska Natives

First author year Population Sample size Risk factor Outcome
Childhood abuse     
White and Cornely 1981 Records Navajo children <9 years old 365 abused and/or neglected AI/AN children Unmarried parents Abuse or neglect
867 comparison AI/AN children Number of children in household Abuse or neglect
Lujan et al. 1989 Southwestern Indian health service hospital 117 medical records of abused and/or neglected AI/AN children ages 1-21 Alcohol abuse by caretaker Abuse or neglect
History of abuse or neglect in caretaker Abuse or neglect
Disability in child Abuse or neglect
Nelson et al. 1996 Mesquakie tribe in Tama Country, Iowa; Siletz and other Northwest tribes in 11-county area in Northern Oregon 39 neglecting AI/AN families Mother under 19 years of age at first birth Neglect
38 comparison AI/AN families More than 1 father associated with household Neglect
Number of children in household Neglect
Parents separated or divorced Neglect
Substance abuse in caretaker Neglect
Criminal charges on caretaker’s record Neglect
Caretaker has or is receiving psychiatric treatment Neglect
Violence against women
Arbuckle et al. 1996 Female homicide victims in New Mexico 33 AI/AN women Alcohol or drug use by victim Homicide by partner
Fairchild et al. 1998 Indian health service facility on a Navajo reservation 341 AI/AN women Receiving government assistance Current IPV
Age (under 40) Current IPV
Robin et al. 1998 Southwestern tribe 56 married AI/AN women Alcohol use by either perpetrator or victim Lifetime IPV
Bohn 2003 Clinic in a Midwestern city 30 AI/AN women Childhood abuse Adult abuse
Harwell et al. 2003 Seven reservations in Montana 588 AI/AN women Age (under 45) Past year physical IPV
Malcoe et al. 2004 WIC clinic in Oklahoma 312 AI/AN women Low SES (living at or below 50% poverty line; receiving government assistance; or partner with < HS education) Past year IPV
Age (under 32) Past year IPV
Separation/divorce Past year IPV
Yuan et al. 2006 Six tribes in the Southwest, Northwest, Northern plains, and Northeast 744 AI/AN women Alcohol dependence Physical assault
Sexual assault
Cohabitation Physical assault
Sexual assault
Separation/divorce Physical assault
Sexual assault
Childhood sexual abuse Sexual assault
Elder abuse
Brown 1989 One Navajo tribe, Oljato chapter (110 total elders) Random sample of 37 elderly and one family member of each elder Suddenness of onset of dependence on family Abuse overall
Family perception of dependency Abuse overall
Mental condition less than normal, as perceived by family Abuse overall
Maxwell and Maxwell 1992 2 Plains Indians tribes Community-wide ethnographic study Caregivers who abused tended to be younger and live with their elders; abuse was more common among less wealthy tribe N/A
Buchwald et al. 2000 Chart review of urban AI/AN (age >50) in primary care in King County 550 AI/AN elderly Younger age Definite or probable physical abuse
Female Definite or probable physical abuse
Currently depressed Definite or probable physical abuse
More likely to depend on Definite or probable physical abuse
    others for food  
  1. Abbreviations: AI/AN American Indian/Alaska Native, IPV intimate partner violence, OR odds ratio.