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Table 1 Number of states, number of state-quarters, number of drug overdose deaths, annualized death rate per 100,000 population, and adjusted risk ratio of drug overdose mortality by prescription drug monitoring program implementation status and characteristics, United States, 1999–2008

From: Prescription drug monitoring and drug overdose mortality

PDMP Status/Characteristic No. of states No. of state- quarters No. of drug overdose deaths Death rate (95% CI) Adjusted risk ratio a(95% CI)
Without PDMP (Ref) 20 1421 151051 8.26 (8.21–8.30) 1.00
With PDMP 31 619 103456 9.51 (9.45–9.57) 1.11 (1.02–1.21)
 PDMP governing agency      
  Department of Health 7 163 34467 8.22 (8.13–8.30) 1.09 (0.92–1.27)
  Board of Pharmacy 17 315 32198 12.10 (11.97–12.24) 1.14 (1.00–1.30)
  Other 7 141 36791 9.14 (9.05–9.23) 1.05 (0.91–1.22)
 Statutory requirements for committee oversight    
  Yes 12 152 30366 9.97 (9.86–10.08) 1.07 (0.95–1.22)
  No 19 467 73090 9.33 (9.26–9.40) 1.13 (1.02–1.26)
 Explicit laws that impose no expectation on practitioners   
  Yes 11 176 23403 10.50 (10.36–10.63) 1.17 (1.02–1.34)
  No 20 443 80053 9.25 (9.19–9.32) 1.08 (0.96–1.20)
 Statutory authority to monitor non-controlled substances   
  Yes 8 89 6840 11.35 (11.09–11.63) 1.01 (0.79–1.29)
  No 23 530 96616 9.40 (9.34–9.46) 1.13 (1.02–1.24)
  1. aAdjusted for year, geographic region, medical examiner type, unemployment rate and poisoning mortality rate from other substances. CI = Confidence Interval; PDMP = Prescription Drug Monitoring Program.