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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted risk ratio and 95% confidence interval of drug overdose mortality according to prescription drug monitoring program implementation status and other variables, United States, 1999–2008

From: Prescription drug monitoring and drug overdose mortality

Variable Unadjusted risk ratio (95% CI) Adjusted risk ratio (95% CI)
 PDMP implemented   
  No (Ref) 1.00 1.00
  Yes 1.17 (1.07–1.27) 1.11 (1.02–1.21)
 Year   
  1999 (Ref) 1.00 1.00
  2000 1.08 (1.01–1.15) 1.08 (1.02–1.15)
  2001 1.17 (1.04–1.32) 1.13 (1.02–1.24)
  2002 1.38 (1.23–1.55) 1.25 (1.02–1.38)
  2003 1.57 (1.38–1.79) 1.38 (1.24–1.55)
  2004 1.70 (1.50–1.93) 1.54 (1.39–1.70)
  2005 1.84 (1.62–2.08) 1.67 (1.50–1.86)
  2006 1.99 (1.72–2.30) 1.87 (1.66–2.10)
  2007 2.06 (1.81–2.34) 1.81 (1.60–2.04)
  2008 2.20 (1.93–2.50) 1.71 (1.51–1.92)
 Region   
  East (Ref) 1.00 1.00
  Midwest 0.70 (0.55–0.89) 0.77 (0.59–1.01)
  South 1.07 (0.89–1.27) 1.07 (0.89–1.29)
  West 1.22 (0.99–1.51) 1.20 (0.98–1.46)
 Death investigation system typea   
  Coroner (Ref) 1.00 1.00
  Coroner/Medical examiner 1.13 (0.75–1.71) 1.05 (0.77–1.42)
  Medical examiner 1.38 (0.91–2.10) 1.28 (0.93–1.77)
 Unemployment rate   
  <6% (Ref) 1.00 1.00
  ≥6% 1.05 (0.99–1.23) 1.07 (1.03–1.11)
Suicides and homicides involving drugs and poisoning from substances other than drugs 1.19 (1.13–1.26) 1.16 (1.10–1.23)
  1. aStates with a coroner system were ID, IN, KS, LA, ND, NE, NV, SD, WY; States with a combination of coroner and medical examiner systems were AK, AL, AR, CA, CO, GA, HI, IL, KY, MN, MO, MS, MT, NY, OH, PA, SC, TX, WA, WI; and states with a medical examiner system were AZ, CT, DC, DE, FL, IA, MA, MD, ME, MI, NC, NH, NJ, NM, OK, OR, RI, TN, UT, VT, VA, WV (Hanzlick 2007; Hanzlick and Parrish 1996; Standing Bear 2012). CI = confidence interval; PDMP = Prescription Drug Monitoring Program; RR = risk ratio.