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Table 3 Adjusted risk ratio and 95% confidence interval of drug overdose mortality associated with the implementation of the prescription drug monitoring program by State, United States, 1999–2008

From: Prescription drug monitoring and drug overdose mortality

State Adjusted risk ratio a(95% CI) State Adjusted risk ratio a(95% CI)
Michigan 0.65 (0.54–0.77) Ohio 1.15 (1.03–1.29)
Virginia 0.77 (0.66–0.89) Alabama 1.16 (1.02–1.33)
New York 0.86 (0.74–0.99) Louisiana 1.18 (0.84–1.65)
Maine 0.91 (0.80–1.04) Oklahoma 1.18 (1.03–1.36)
Mississippi 0.95 (0.84–1.09) Hawaii 1.28 (1.07–1.52)
North Carolina 0.95 (0.86–1.06) Idaho 1.35 (1.03–1.77)
California 0.96 (0.85–1.09) New Mexico 1.35 (1.18–1.56)
Massachusetts 0.96 (0.82–1.12) Kentucky 1.42 (1.24–1.64)
Texas 1.00 (0.87–1.16) Indiana 1.44 (1.20–1.73)
Arizona 1.02 (0.94–1.10) Utah 1.47 (1.16–1.87)
South Carolina 1.04 (0.93–1.16) Pennsylvania 1.49 (1.33–1.68)
Tennessee 1.05 (0.94–1.17) West Virginia 1.49 (1.28–1.73)
Illinois 1.11 (0.98–1.25) Wyoming 1.53 (1.23–1.89)
Rhode Island 1.11 (0.91–1.35) North Dakota 1.72 (1.43–2.07)
Colorado 1.12 (1.00–1.25) Nevada 3.37 (2.48–4.59)
Connecticut 1.12 (1.00–1.25)   
  1. aAdjusted for year, geographic region, medical examiner type, unemployment rate and poisoning mortality rate from other substances; and estimated separately for each state using state-quarter data for the individual state and those without an operational Prescription Drug Monitoring Program throughout the study period (AK, AR, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, KS, MD, MN, MT, MO, NE, NH, NJ, OR, SD, VT, WA, and WI).
  2. CI = confidence interval.