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Table 2 Driver characteristics associated with usually self-restricting driving in ≥1 situation† (n = 311)

From: Driving self-restriction and age: a study of emergency department patients

Demographic or driving-related characteristic No self-restriction (n = 97) Self-restriction in ≥1 situation (n = 214) Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) P value Adjusted odds ratio
n (%) n (%) (95% CI)
Age in years (median [SD])* 61 (25) 59 (30) 1.00 (0.98-1.01) 0.659  
Age Group      
 25-64 54 (56) 124 (58) 1.0 (Ref) --
 ≥65 43 (44) 90 (42) 0.91 (0.56-1.48) 0.707
Gender      
 Male 60 (62) 80 (38) 1.0 (Ref.) -- 1.0 (Ref.)
 Female 37 (38) 134 (63) 2.72 (1.66-4.45) 0.000 2.40 (1.42-4.05)
Current frequency of driving      
 Everyday or almost everyday 87 (90) 161 (75) 1.0 (Ref.) -- 1.0 (Ref.)
 Occasionally 7 (7.2) 40 (19) 3.08 (1.33-7.18) 0.009 3.52 (1.39-8.91)
 Seldom 3 (3.1) 13 (6.1) 2.34 (0.65-8.44) 0.193 1.73 (0.45-6.61)
Self-rated general driving ability      
 Good 93 (96) 194 (91) 1.0 (Ref) -- 1.0 (Ref.)
 Average 3 (3.1) 18 (8.4) 2.88 (0.83-10.01) 0.097 2.10 (0.58-7.66)
 Poor 0 (0.0) 1 (0.5) -- -- --
≥1 MVC (as a driver) in past 12 months 8 (8.3) 21 (9.8) 1.23 (0.53-2.90) 0.626  
≥1 police stops (as a driver) in past 12 months 15 (15) 44 (21) 0.87 (0.66-1.16) 0.266  
In past 12 months, asked by someone to stop driving 1 (1.0) 5 (2.3) 0.43 (0.05-3.75) 0.446  
Frequency of feeling confused, nervous or uncomfortable while driving      
 Never 74 (76) 126 (59) 1.0 (Ref.) -- 1.0 (Ref.)
 Rarely/Often/Sometimes 22 (23) 83 (39) 2.22 (1.28-3.84) 0.005 1.87 (1.03-3.39)
Frequency of having vision problems while driving      
 Never 89 (92) 170 (79) 1.0 (Ref.) -- 1.0 (Ref.)
 Rarely/Often/Sometimes 7 (7.2) 39 (18) 2.92 (1.25-6.79) 0.013 2.15 (0.88-5.26)
  1. Table 2 Legend:
  2. 95% CI: 95% Confidence Interval; MVC: Motor Vehicle Crash.
  3. *Odds ratio per increased year of age.
  4. Participants were asked if they “usually avoid driving” in each of the following situations, with multiple “yes” responses allowed: at night; on high speed roads; in heavy traffic; in bad weather; with others; alone; or in unfamiliar places.
  5. Participants were asked “While stopped in a vehicle at a traffic light, how often do you have trouble reading the license plate on the care in front of you? (This means when wearing glasses or contacts, if needed)”.
  6. Numbers may not add to 100% or total because of rounding or missing data (not reported if <5% of total).