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Table 1 Background characteristics of participants, Unadjusted and Adjusted odds ratios of Injury deaths among adults aged 15 to 59 years in Navrongo HDSS: 1998-2011

From: Road traffic fatalities - a neglected epidemic in rural northern Ghana: evidence from the Navrongo demographic surveillance system

Variable (col 1) Deaths n (%) (Col 2) Injury deaths n(%) (Col 3) Unadjusted odds ratio of Injury deaths (95% CI) (Col 4) Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) (Col 5)
Education level    1  
No education 3904 (52.3) 270 (6.9)   1
Primary/JSS 2282 (30.6) 283 (12.4) 1.91 (1.60 – 2.270*** 1.0 (0.82 - 1.22)
Sec/Tertiary 643 (8.6) 117 (18.2) 2.99 (2.37 – 3.79)*** 1.42 (1.08 - 1.87)*
Missing 636 (8.5) 35 (5.5) 0.78 (0.54 – 1.13) 0.52 (0.36 - 0.75)
Sex    1  
Female 3229 (43.3) 211 (6.5)   1
Male 4236 (56.7) 494 (11.7) 1.89 (1.60 – 2.23)*** 1.85 (1.55 - 2.21)***
Wealth index     
Poor 1624 (21.8) 115 (7.1) 1 1
Next poor 1562 (20.9) 138 (8.5) 1.22 (0.94 - 1.58) 1.24 (0.95 - 1.62)
Average 1566 (21.0) 151 (9.6) 1.40 (1.09 - 1.80)** 1.41 (1.08 - 1.83)*
Less poor 1533 (20.5) 150 (9.8) 1.42 (1.11 - 1.84)** 1.31 (1.00 - 1.71)
Least poor 1066 (14.3) 149 (14.0) 2.13 (1.65 - 2.75)*** 1.55 (1.14 - 2.12)**
Missing 114 (1.5) 7 (6.1) 0.86 (0.39 - 1.89) 1.05 (0.47 – 2.37)
Place of residence     
Rural 6370 (85.3) 546 (8.6) 1 1
Urban 1095 (14.7) 159 (14.5) 1.81 (1.50 – 2.19)*** 1.39 (1.10 – 1.76)**
Period of study     
1998-2003 3973 (53.2) 298 (7.5) 1 1
2004-2007 1576 (21.1) 215 (13.6) 1.95 (1.62 – 2.35)*** 1.87 (1.54 - 2.27)***
2008-2011 1916 (25.7) 192 (10.0) 1.37 (1.14 – 1.66)** 1.26 (1.03 - 1.54)*
Season     
Rainy 3550 (47.6) 338 (9.5) 1.02 (0.87-1.19) NS
Dry 3915 (52.4) 367 (9.4) 1  
Age Group     
15-19 404 (5.4) 81 (20.1) 4.67 (3.48 - 6.27)*** 5.11 (3.71 - 7.04)***
20-29 897 (12.0) 161 (18.0) 4.07 (3.21 - 5.17)*** 4.22 (3.27 - 5.44)***
30-39 1421 (19.0) 172 (12.1) 2.56 (2.04 - 3.23)*** 2.49 (1.96 - 3.16)***
40-49 1898 (25.4) 146 (7.7) 1.55 (1.22 - 1.97)*** 1.48 (1.16 - 1.89)**
50-59 2845 (38.1) 145 (5.1) 1 1
Month     
January 701 (9.4) 45 (6.4) 1 1
February 619 (8.3) 51 (8.2) 1.31 (0.86 - 1.98) 1.24 (0.81 - 1.90)
March 691 (9.3) 56 (8.1) 1.29 (0.86 - 1.93) 1.19 (0.78 - 1.80)
April 641 (8.6) 83 (13.0) 2.17 (1.48 - 3.17)*** 2.07 (1.40 - 3.06)***
May 579 (7.8) 63 (10.9) 1.78 (1.19 - 2.65)** 1.61 (1.07 - 2.44)*
June 555 (7.4) 42 (7.6) 1.19 (0.77 - 1.85) 1.10 (0.70 - 1.71)
July 522 (7.0) 56 (10.7) 1.75 (1.16 - 2.64)** 1.57 (1.03 - 2.40)*
August 612 (8.2) 66 (10.8) 1.76 (1.19 - 2.62)** 1.61 (1.08 - 2.42)*
September 622 (8.3) 50 (8.0) 1.27 (0.84 - 1.94) 1.14 (0.75 - 1.76)
October 660 (8.8) 61 (9.2) 1.48 (0.99 - 2.22) 1.50 (1.00 - 2.26)
November 558 (7.5) 53 (9.5) 1.53 (1.01 - 2.31)* 1.36 (0.89 - 2.08)
December 705 (9.4) 79 (11.2) 1.84 (1.26 - 2.70)** 1.76 (1.19 - 2.61)**
Total 7465 (100) 705 (9.44)   
  1. Note: *P < 0.05 **P < 0.01 ***P < 0.001 NS - not significant at bivariate analysis.