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Table 2 Risk factors for road traffic accidents (RTAs) among adults aged 15 to 59 years in Navrongo HDSS: 2006-2011

From: Road traffic fatalities - a neglected epidemic in rural northern Ghana: evidence from the Navrongo demographic surveillance system

Variable Deaths n (%) Road traffic deaths n (%) Odds ratio (95% CI) Odds ratio (Adjusted (95% CI)
Education level     
No education 1160 (43.9) 21 (1.8) 1 1
Primary/JSS 1026 (38.8 49 (4.8) 2.72 (1.62 – 4.57)*** 1.44 (0.82 – 2.51)
Sec/Tertiary 337 (12.8) 49 (14.5) 9.23 (5.44 – 15.63)*** 3.21 (1.75 – 5.87)***
Missing 120 (4.5) 9 (7.5) 4.40 (1.97 – 9.83)*** 2.11 (0.90 – 4.95)
Sex     
Female 977 (37.0) 29 (3.00 1 1
Male 1666 (63.0) 99 (5.9) 2.07 (1.35 – 3.15)** 1.90 (1.21 – 2.98)**
Wealth index     
Poor 562 (21.3) 16 (2.9) 1 1
Next poor 547 (20.7) 14 (2.6) 0.90 (0.43 – 1.85) 0.93 (0.44 – 1.95)
Average 563 (21.3) 15 (2.7) 0.93 (0.46 – 1.91) 0.88 (0.42 – 1.83)
Less poor 592 (22.4) 34 (5.8) 2.08 (1.13 – 3.81)* 1.63 (0.86 – 3.12)
Least poor 365 (13.8) 48 (13.2) 5.17 (2.89 – 9.25)*** 2.43 (1.21 – 4.88)*
Missing 14 (0.5) 1 (7.1) 2.63 (0.32 – 21.3) 1.20 (0.13 – 10.99)
Place of residence     
Rural 2233 (84.5) 79 (3.5) 1 1
Urban 410 (15.5) 49 (12.0) 3.70 (2.55 – 5.38)*** 1.74 (1.09 – 2.78)*
Period of study     
2006-2008 1232 (46.6) 53 (4.3) 1 NS
2009-2011 1411 (53.4) 75 (5.3) 1.25 (0.87 – 1.79)  
Season     
Rainy 1310 (49.6) 55 (4.2) 1 NS
Dry 1333 (50.4) 73 (5.5) 1.32 (0.93 – 1.90)  
Age Group     
15-19 112 (4.2) 6 (5.4) 2.78 (1.09 – 7.07)* 3.02 (1.13 – 8.13)*
20-29 307 (11.6) 35 (11.4) 6.32 (3.59 – 11.12)*** 4.85 (2.65 – 8.89)***
30-39 503 (19.0) 42 (8.4) 4.46 (2.59 – 7.69)*** 3.45 (1.95 – 6.11)***
40-49 719 (27.2) 25 (3.5) 1.77 (0.98 – 3.21) 1.54 (0.83 – 2.85)
50-59 1002 (37.9) 20 (2.0) 1 1
Month     
January 215 (8.1) 4 (1.8) 1 1
February 214 (8.1) 14 (6.5) 3.69 (1.20 – 11.41)* 3.56 (1.12 - 11.31)*
March 235 (8.9) 11 (4.7) 2.59 (0.81 – 8.26) 2.81 (0.86 - 9.25)
April 237 (9.0) 18 (7.6) 4.34 (1.44 – 13.02)** 4.73 (1.53 - 14.64)**
May 210 (8.0) 17 (8.1) 4.65 (1.54 – 14.05)** 3.84 (1.23 - 12.01)*
June 230 (8.7) 7 (3.1) 1.66 (0.48 – 5.74) 1.44 (0.40 - 5.12)
July 195 (7.4) 6 (3.1) 1.67 (0.47 – 6.02) 1.52 (0.41 - 5.67)
August 220 (8.3) 9 (4.1) 2.25 (0.68 – 7.42) 2.00 (0.59 - 6.81)
September 223 (8.4) 9 (4.0) 2.22 (0.69 – 7.31) 1.97 (0.58 - 6.71)
October 233 (8.8) 7 (3.0) 1.63 (0.47 – 5.66) 1.60 (0.45 5.73)
November 189 (7.1) 10 (5.3) 2.95 (0.91 – 9.56) 2.98 (0.89 - 9.97)
December 242 (9.2) 16 (6.6) 3.73 (1.23 – 11.35)* 3.66 (1.16 - 11.53)*
Total 2643 (100) 128 (4.8)   
  1. Note: *P < 0.05 **P < 0.01 ***P < 0.001 NS - not significant at bivariate analysis.