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Table 2 Types of drugged driving legislation and legal Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) thresholds for drivers in European countries

From: Establishing legal limits for driving under the influence of marijuana

Country Legislation Legal THC limit
Belgium Two-tier 1.0 μg/L in blood serum
Denmark Two-tier 1.0 μg/L in blood
Finland Two-tier THC: 1.0 μg/L in blood
THC-COOH: 5.0 μg/L in blood
France Two-tier 1.0 μg/L in blood
Germany Two-tier 1.0 μg/L in blood serum
Greece Impairment 1.0 μg/L in blood
Ireland Impairment THC: 2.0 μg/L in blood
THC-COOH: 5.0 μg/L in blood
Italy Per se THC or THC-COOH: 0.5 μg/L in blood
Luxembourg Impairment 2.0 μg/L in blood serum
Netherlands * 3.0 μg/L in blood**
5.0 μg/L in blood serum
Norway Impairment 1.3 μg/L in blood***
Poland Per se THC: 2.0 μg/L in blood
THC-COOH: 50.0 μg/L in blood
Portugal Per se THC: 3.0 μg/L in blood
THC-COOH: 5.0 μg/L in blood
Slovenia Per se THC: 0.3 μg/L in blood serum
THC-COOH: 5.0 μg/L in blood serum
Switzerland Per se 1.5 μg/L in blood
United Kingdom**** Impairment THC: 2.0 μg/L in blood
THC-COOH: 10.0 μg/L in blood
  1. *Impairment as of 2011, but a proposal for a two-tier system has been implemented.
  2. **Recommended by Netherlands Advisory Committee.
  3. ***Norway specified THC levels comparable to BAC (with regard to severity of impairment): 3.0 μg/L in blood is comparable to 0.05% BAC; 9.0 μg/L in blood is comparable to 0.12% BAC.
  4. ****Initial drug screening is conducted via Drugalyser oral swab tests. A positive test could lead to a blood sample test to quantify THC level.
  5. Abbreviations: THC Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THC-COOH carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
  6. Sources: Verstraete A, Knoche A, Jantos R, Skopp G, Gjerde H, Vindenes V et al. Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines (DRUID): Per se limits - Methods of defining cut-off values for zero tolerance. 2011. Accessed July 20 2014; Wolff K, Johnston A. Cannabis use: a perspective in relation to the proposed UK drug-driving legislation. Drug Test Anal. 2014; 6(1–2):143–54.