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Table 4 Distributions and mean values of mental health outcomes, by self-reported total concussion history

From: Association between concussion and mental health in former collegiate athletes

Mental health outcome Number of total concussions a Total
0 (n = 485) 1 (n = 145) 2 (n = 68) 3+ (n = 94)
Depression (PHQ-9)b      
Mean (SD) 2.5 (3.0) 2.9 (3.6) 4.5 (4.6) 4.5 (5.0) 3.0 (3.7)
Categories, n (%)      
Minimal (0–4) 370 (79.9) 114 (80.3) 39 (58.2) 57 (63.3) 580 (76.1)
Mild (5–9) 80 (17.3) 20 (14.1) 21 (31.3) 25 (27.8) 146 (19.2)
Moderate (10–14) 9 (2.0) 5 (3.5) 4 (6.0) 4 (4.4) 22 (2.9)
Moderately Severe (15–19) 3 (0.7) 3 (2.0) 1 (1.5) 1 (1.1) 8 (1.0)
Severe (20–27) 1 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 2 (3.0) 3 (3.3) 6 (0.8)
% ≥10c 2.8% 5.6% 10.4% 8.9% 4.7%
.      
Impulsivity (BIS15)      
Mean (SD) 25.1 (5.2) 27.0 (6.4) 28.4 (7.0) 27.7 (7.4) 26.0 (6.0)
Subscale Mean (SD)      
Attentional 8.5 (2.4) 9.4 (2.7) 10.3 (3.0) 9.9 (3.3) 9.0 (2.7)
Motor 8.1 (2.1) 8.7 (2.5) 9.0 (2.6) 8.6 (2.5) 8.4 (2.3)
Non-planning 8.4 (2.6) 9.0 (2.8) 9.1 (2.8) 9.2 (3.2) 8.7 (2.7)
.      
Aggression (BPAQ-SF)      
Mean (SD) 18.0 (6.3) 18.8 (7.8) 20.6 (7.7) 22.4 (10.0) 18.9 (7.4)
Subscale Mean (SD)      
Physical aggression 3.5 (1.3) 3.8 (1.9) 3.9 (1.7) 4.5 (2.7) 3.7 (1.7)
Verbal aggression 5.3 (2.4) 5.4 (2.5) 6.2 (2.7) 6.6 (3.1) 5.5 (2.6)
Anger 4.7 (2.2) 5.1 (2.7) 5.5 (2.5) 5.7 (2.9) 5.0 (2.5)
Hostility 4.5 (2.2) 4.6 (2.5) 5.0 (2.7) 5.6 (3.3) 4.7 (2.5)
  1. NOTE: PHQ-9 = Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression; BIS15 = Short Form of the Barratt Impulsiveness scale; BPAQ-SF = 12-item Short Form of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire; SD = Standard deviation; Sum of number of concussions may not equal 797 due to missing data for non-sport-related concussions and mental health outcomes.
  2. aTotal concussions includes all sport- and non-sport-related concussions.
  3. bExcludes respondents with PHQ-9 scores <10 that reported being currently treated/medicated for depression (n = 28).
  4. cPHQ-9 score ≥10 indicates moderate to severe depression.