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Table 5 Prevalence ratios and prevalence differences of depression, by self-reported total concussion history a

From: Association between concussion and mental health in former collegiate athletes

Total concussions n Crude PR Adjusted PR Crude PD Adjusted PD
PR 95% CI PR 95% CI PD 95% CI PD 95% CI
Depression (PHQ-9)b
0 463 1   1   0   0  
1 142 2.0 (0.8, 4.7) 1.6 (0.7, 3.7) 0.03 (-0.01, 0.07) 0.00 (-0.03, 0.03)
2 67 3.7 (1.5, 9.0) 2.4 (0.9, 6.3) 0.07 (0.00, 0.15) 0.03 (-0.02, 0.09)
3+ 90 3.2 (1.4, 7.4) 2.4 (1.0, 5.7) 0.06 (0.00, 0.12) 0.04 (-0.01, 0.09)
  1. NOTE: PHQ-9 = Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression; PR = Prevalence ratio; PD = Prevalence difference; CI = Confidence interval.
  2. aTotal concussions includes all sport- and non-sport-related concussions.
  3. bExcludes respondents with PHQ-9 scores <10 that reported being currently treated/medicated for depression (n = 28);
  4. models utilize split where 0 = <10 on PHQ-9, 1 = ≥10 on PHQ-9 (score ≥10 indicates moderate to severe depression). Models predicting PRs utilized binomial regression. Models predicting PDs utilized linear regression; adjusted models control for alcohol dependence and family history of depression.