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Table 6 Mean differences of impulsivity and aggression, by self-reported total concussion history a

From: Association between concussion and mental health in former collegiate athletes

Total concussions n Crude MD Adjusted MD
MD 95% CI MD 95% CI
Impulsivity (BIS15)b, c      
0 476 0   0  
1 142 2.0 (0.9, 3.1) 1.1 (-0.0, 2.1)
2 67 3.4 (1.8, 4.9) 2.7 (1.2, 4.1)
3+ 92 2.7 (1.4, 4.0) 1.9 (0.6, 3.2)
Aggression (BPAQ-SF)b, d      
0 477 0   0  
1 143 0.8 (-0.5, 2.2) 0.0 (-1.3, 1.4)
2 67 2.7 (0.8, 4.5) 1.8 (-0.0, 3.7)
3+ 94 4.5 (2.9, 6.1) 3.0 (1.4, 4.7)
  1. NOTE: BIS15 = Short Form of the Barratt Impulsiveness scale; BPAQ-SF = 12-item Short Form of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire; MD = Mean difference; CI = Confidence interval.
  2. aTotal concussions includes all sport- and non-sport-related concussions.
  3. bModels utilized continuous outcomes and predicted mean differences using linear regression.
  4. cAdjusted models control for alcohol dependence, family history of anxiety, relationship status, education (obtained post-graduate degree), played primary college sport professionally.
  5. dAdjusted models control for alcohol dependence, sex, relationship status , played primary college sport professionally, and current BMI.