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Table 7 Prevalence ratios and prevalence differences of depression, by self-reported college and professional sport concussion history

From: Association between concussion and mental health in former collegiate athletes

Number of concussions a n Crude PR Adjusted PR Crude PD Adjusted PD
PR 95% CI PR 95% CI PD 95% CI PD 95% CI
Depression (PHQ-9)b
0 655 1   1   0   0  
1 65 0.7 (0.2, 2.8) 0.6 (0.2, 2.5) -0.01 (-0.06, 0.03) -0.07 (-0.06, 0.03)
2 21 1.1 (0.2, 7.5) 1.2 (0.2, 9.5) 0.00 (0.09, 0.10) 0.10 (-0.06, 0.13)
3+ 26 3.5 (1.3, 9.2) 3.4 (1.5, 7.5) 0.11 (-0.03, 0.25) 0.04 (-0.08, 0.20)
  1. NOTE: PHQ-9 = Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression; PR = Prevalence ratio; PD = Prevalence difference; CI = Confidence interval.
  2. aTotal concussions includes all concussions sustained during participation in college and professional sports.
  3. bExcludes respondents with PHQ-9 scores <10 that reported being currently treated/medicated for depression (n = 28);
  4. models utilize split where 0 = <10 on PHQ-9, 1 = ≥10 on PHQ-9 (score ≥10 indicates moderate to severe depression). Models predicting PRs utilized binomial regression. Models predicting PDs utilized linear regression; adjusted models control for alcohol dependence and family history of depression.