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Table 8 Mean differences of impulsivity and aggression, by self-reported college and professional sport concussion history

From: Association between concussion and mental health in former collegiate athletes

Total concussions n Crude MD Adjusted MD
MD 95% CI MD 95% CI
Impulsivity (BIS15)a, b      
0 669 0   0  
1 65 1.7 (0.2, 3.2) 0.8 (-0.7, 2.3)
2 21 2.2 (-0.4, 4.9) 1.7 (-0.9, 4.3)
3+ 27 1.8 (-0.5, 4.1) 1.5 (-0.7, 3.7)
Aggression (BPAQ-SF)a, c      
0 672 0   0  
1 66 1.5 (-0.4, 3.3) 0.4 (-1.4, 2.2)
2 21 3.9 (0.7, 7.1) 2.5 (-0.8, 5.7)
3+ 27 3.3 (0.5, 6.2) 2.1 (-0.7, 4.9)
  1. NOTE: BIS15 = Short Form of the Barratt Impulsiveness scale; BPAQ-SF = 12-item Short Form of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire; MD = Mean difference; CI = Confidence interval.
  2. aModels utilized continuous outcomes and predicted mean differences using linear regression.
  3. bAdjusted models control for alcohol dependence, family history of anxiety, relationship status, education (obtained post-graduate degree), played primary college sport professionally.
  4. cAdjusted models control for alcohol dependence, sex, relationship status , played primary college sport professionally, and current BMI.