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Table 1 The 19 categories of causes assigned to ED presentations relating to injuries at fitness centres

From: The causes of injuries sustained at fitness facilities presenting to Victorian emergency departments - identifying the main culprits

Specific cause Explanation
Trip/fall using static fitness equipment Any trip or fall when using non-motorised equipment (e.g. Swiss ball)
Trip/fall using motorised/cardiovascular equipment Any trip or fall when using motorised equipment (e.g. treadmill)
Trip/fall throughout facility (including group exercise) Any trip or fall when not using equipment (e.g. during aerobics class)
Trip/fall in change rooms Any trip or fall that occurred in the change rooms (e.g. slip in shower)
Awkward landing or twist during exercise Any mention of awkward landing or twist when exercising (e.g. rolled ankle in aerobics class)
Caught in equipment Incidents where body parts have been caught in machines or equipment (e.g. finger in treadmill belt)
Crushed by falling/dropped weights Dropping of heavy weights or objects onto body parts (e.g. dropped barbell)
Crushed between weights/objects Body parts that have been crushed between heavy weights or objects (e.g. when placing plate weights on equipment)
Hit/contact with equipment/wall Any case where individual has made contact with the wall or equipment (e.g. missed boxing bag and hit wall)
Hit/contact with other person or self Any case where there has been contact with another or themselves resulting in injury (e.g. martial arts class and kicked by other participant)
Crushed beneath equipment (other than weights) Any case where a body part has been crushed beneath equipment (e.g. equipment moved and landed on foot)
Equipment malfunction/break Snapped cables, equipment has fallen apart or dislodged, or equipment has not worked as designed
Moving equipment Any injury that occurred when moving equipment (e.g. injured back when moving treadmill)
Overexertion/strenuous/unnatural movement Any mention of a sprain or strain, they felt something give way or ‘pop’
Working/fitness instructor/demonstrator Any mention of injury occurring during work at fitness facility (e.g. class instructor fell from stage)
Assault Any intentional injury caused by another
Foreign body Any mention of foreign body in body cavity (e.g. rust from dumbbell in eye)
Poisoning/allergy Any mention of individual attending a fitness facility and developing allergic reaction (e.g. used a piece of equipment and broke out in hives)
Exact cause unknown Injury is known to have occurred at a fitness facility but exact cause not stated
  1. Words in italics both in the above table and throughout the text are the cause categories.