Skip to main content

Table 2 Multivariate fixed effects models on road traffic fatalities and crash fatality ratio

From: Economic development and road traffic fatalities in Russia: analysis of federal regions 2004–2011

  Road traffic fatalities (count) Crash fatality ratio (fatalities per 1000 crashes)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
ß (SD) ß (SD) ß (SD) ß (SD) ß (SD) ß (SD)
GRP, bln RUB −0.690*** −0.405*** 0.115 −0.139*** 0.010 0.007
  [0.055] [0.079] [0.074] [0.018] [0.021] [0.035]
Population, 1000 0.065 −0.082 0.022 0.098*** −0.019 −0.003
  [0.059] [0.063] [0.053] [0.020] [0.020] [0.025]
Territory, 1000 km2 0.016 0.054 −0.070 0.364 0.295 0.336
  [0.731] [0.582] [0.477] [0.526] [0.451] [0.455]
Year       
 2004 (reference)   0.000 0.000   0.000 0.000
   [0.000] [0.000]   [0.000] [0.000]
 2005   −2.902 1.762   −9.878*** −10.113***
   [6.768] [5.559]   [2.642] [2.697]
 2006   −20.309*** −13.928**   −21.393*** −21.814***
   [7.237] [5.951]   [2.776] [2.875]
 2007   −7.030 4.336   −25.763*** −26.145***
   [7.807] [6.451]   [2.998] [3.109]
 2008   −30.853*** −7.552   −28.997*** −29.259***
   [8.068] [6.810]   [3.152] [3.309]
 2009   −70.890*** −29.258***   −32.199*** −32.299***
   [7.540] [6.824]   [2.932] [3.354]
 2010   −80.318*** −31.181***   −34.196*** −34.130***
   [7.949] [7.355]   [3.071] [3.586]
 2011   −49.251*** 4.712   −29.364*** −28.922***
   [8.668] [8.033]   [3.361] [3.894]
Public buses, 1000   −3.703 −24.666***    −3.692
   [8.887] [7.431]    [3.408]
Physicians, 1000   −22.358*** −6.132    −0.109
   [7.181] [5.995]    [2.810]
Health budget, bln RUB   2.458 1.232    0.187
   [1.632] [1.341]    [0.614]
Private cars, 1000    −0.657***    −0.007
    [0.046]    [0.022]
Constant 386.369** 791.011*** 630.954*** −70.153 144.558 114.844
R 2 within 0.27 0.558 0.703 0.138 0.378 0.380
 Additive R 2 within 0.27 0.288 0.145 0.138 0.24 0.002
 Observations number 505 505 505 512 512 512
 Regions number 67 67 67 66 66 66
Ρ(Rho) 0.981 0.996 0.997 0.993 0.990 0.992
 Adjusted R 2 0.971 0.982 0.988 0.750 0.816 0.815
  1. Length of road not significant to be included in the final models
  2. ß (SD) coefficient from linear fixed effects model and its standard deviation, bln billion, RUB Russian ruble, km 2 square kilometer, km kilometer, R 2 coefficient of determination
  3. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; **p < 0.01 to **p < 0.05