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Table 2 Episodes of care by body sites, injury, and types of healthcare services

From: Development of an algorithm to identify fall-related injuries and costs in Medicare data

  No. of Proportion with… Ray et al.
Body sites and causes of injury a Episode Inp. / SNF ED Out. ED & Out. b
Hip fracture 206 98 % 2 % 0 % 5 %
Other Fracture : Pelvis 53 85 % 15 % 0 % 14 %
Other Fracture : Rib 61 57 % 41 % 2 % 48 %c
Other Fracture : Clavicle 64 16 % 55 % 30 % 62 %d
Other Fracture : Humerus 91 51 % 44 % 5 % 55 %
Other Fracture : Radius & ulna 104 30 % 61 % 10 % 72 %
Other Fracture : Navicular (scaphoid) 34 41 % 53 % 6 %  
Other Fracture : Hand 44 18 % 80 % 2 % 86 %
Other Fracture : Femur, tibia, fibula 93 88 % 11 % 1 % 15 %e
Other Fracture : Patella 11 73 % 27 % 0 % 43 %
Other Fracture : Ankle 32 47 % 44 % 9 % 55 %
Head Injury : Head fracture 49 35 % 49 % 16 % 55 %
Head Injury : Head trauma 68 87 % 12 % 1 %  
Joint Dislocation : Shoulder 18 50 % 44 % 6 %  
Joint Dislocation : Elbow 0     
Joint Dislocation : Wrist 4 50 % 50 % 0 %  
Joint Dislocation : Knee 27 15 % 44 % 41 %  
E Codes : Stairs or steps 20 25 % 70 % 5 %  
E Codes : Ladders or scaffolding 1 0 % 100 % 0 %  
E Codes : Building or structure 0     
E Codes : Hole 0     
E Codes : One level to another 73 37 % 62 % 1 %  
E Codes : Same level - tripping 211 39 % 56 % 4 %  
E Codes : Same level - pushed 3 67 % 33 % 0 %  
E Codes : Other and unspecified 589 42 % 53 % 6 %  
All 1162 43 % 49 % 8 % 37 %
  1. a Body sites and causes of injury are based on ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and external cause of injury codes, respectively (see Additional file 1: Appendix C)
  2. b Values in this column are cited from Table 3 in Ray et al.(Ray et al. 1992) which did not distinguish outpatient fractures by whether they involved ED visits or not. These proportions were based on a total of 2,398 probable fractures
  3. c Ray et al. refers to rib/sternum
  4. d Ray et al. refers to clavicle/scapula
  5. e Ray et al. identifies 15 % of femoral shaft fractures and 43 % of tibia/fibula fractures from outpatient claims