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Table 4 Rates and relative risks of death according to the crash report, medical resource utilization, and medical outcomes with 95 % confidence intervals

From: Motorcycle helmet effectiveness in reducing head, face and brain injuries by state and helmet law

Motorcycle helmet law Death according to crash reportc Link to medical recordc Head injurya Facial injurya Traumatic brain injurya Moderate to severe head or facial injury or deathb
Partial Helmet Law 3.5 % (3.3,3.7) 55 % (54,55) 30 % (29,31) 23 % (22,23) 14 % (14,15) 18 % (18,19)
Universal Helmet Law 3.4 % (3.2,3.6) 58 % (58,59) 21 % (20,21) 13 % (13,14) 12 % (12,13) 16 % (15,16)
Relative Riskd       
Partial vs. Universal Law 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 1.0 (0.9, 1.2) 1.4 (1.2, 1.6) 1.5 (1.3, 1.8) 1.1 (0.9, 1.4) 1.1 (0.9, 1.3)
  1. a Motorcycle operators with linked medical records (ED or hospital) are included
  2. b Motorcycle operators with linked medical records (ED or hospital) and those dead at the scene are included
  3. c All studied motorcycle operators are included
  4. d Relative risks control for correlation within state using Generalized Log-Binomial regression models