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Table 1 Driver and crash characteristics by drug and alcohol use for drivers of passenger vehicles involved in a fatal motor vehicle crash, Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), 2008–2013

From: Restraint use and risky driving behaviors across drug types and drug and alcohol combinations for drivers involved in a fatal motor vehicle collision on U.S. roadways

  No drug n (%) Drugs only n (%) Alcohol only n (%) Drug + Alcohol n (%)a Total Chi square
  36,115 (45.2) 12,771 (16.0) 18,986 (23.8) 12,060 (15.1) 79,932  
Driver characteristics
Driver age (years)       8552.8 (<0.0001)
 15–17 1764 (4.9) 411 (3.2) 273 (1.4) 247 (2.1) 2695 (3.4)  
 18–19 2600 (7.2) 874 (6.8) 922 (4.9) 732 (6.1) 5128 (6.4)  
 20–24 4287 (11.9) 1925 (15.1) 4106 (21.6) 2811 (23.3) 13,129 (16.4)  
 25–44 9763 (27.0) 4954 (38.8) 8815 (46.4) 5673 (47.4) 29,205 (36.5)  
 45–64 9806 (27.2) 3406 (26.7) 4039 (21.3) 2382 (19.8) 19,633 (24.6)  
 65+ 7883 (21.8) 1192 (9.3) 823 (4.3) 213 (1.8) 10,111 (12.7)  
Driver gender       2446.7 (<0.0001)
 Male 23,160 (64.1) 8614 (67.5) 15,550 (81.9) 9590 (79.5) 56,914 (71.2)  
 Female 12,951 (35.9) 4154 (32.5) 3430 (18.1) 2465 (20.4) 23,000 (28.8)  
Injury severity       1686.5 (<0.0001)
 Not injured 5192 (15.1) 1288 (10.5) 1246 (6.8) 754 (6.5) 8480 (11.0)  
 Non-incapacitating injury 2808 (8.2) 1080 (8.8) 1336 (7.3) 1067 (9.2) 6291 (8.2)  
 Incapacitating injury 1954 (5.7) 1153 (9.4) 1211 (6.6) 1232 (10.6) 5550 (7.2)  
 Fatal injury 24,497 (71.1) 8726 (71.3) 14,625 (79.4) 8606 (73.8) 56,454 (73.5)  
Driver restraint use       7181.9 (<0.0001)
 Belted 24,212 (67.1) 6539 (51.2) 6765 (35.6) 3976 (33.0) 41,492 (51.9)  
 Not belted 9616 (26.6) 1059 (40.5) 10,471 (55.2) 6878 (57.0) 32,138 (40.2)  
Number of occupants       319.7 (<0.0001)
 One (Driver only) 20,030 (55.5) 7340 (57.5) 10,605 (55.9) 6535 (54.2) 44,510 (55.7)  
 Two (Driver with one passenger) 6004 (16.6) 2329 (18.2) 2969 (15.6) 2324 (19.3) 13,626 (17.1)  
 Three or more 3726 (10.3) 1370 (16.5) 1762 (9.3) 1423 (17.2) 8281 (10.4)  
Crash characteristics
Violation charged
 Sign 2262 (6.3) 783 (6.1) 1084 (5.7) 817 (6.8) 4946 (6.2) 15.1 (0.0018)
 Turning 1604 (4.4) 541 (4.2) 861 (4.5) 442 (3.7) 3448 (4.3) 16.2 (0.0011)
 Passing 2073 (5.7) 1074 (8.4) 1809 (9.5) 1006 (8.3) 5962 (7.5) 302.7 (<0.0001)
 Reckless driving 3826 (10.6) 2292 (18.0) 4376 (23.1) 3041 (25.2) 13,535 (16.9) 2134.1 (<0.0001)
 Speed related 1491 (4.1) 673 (5.3) 1767 (9.3) 1142 (9.5) 5073 (6.4) 801.6 (<0.0001)
 Lane 3308 (9.2) 1324 (10.4) 2522 (13.3) 1488 (12.4) 8642 (10.8) 254.3 (<0.0001)
 Any moving violation 12,010 (33.3) 5393 (42.2) 9720 (51.2) 6182 (51.3) 33,305 (41.7) 2219.0 (<0.0001)
Number of vehicles in crash       6230.4 (<0.0001)
 Single vehicle 13,014 (36.0) 5416 (42.4) 12,554 (66.1) 7916 (65.6) 38,900 (48.7)  
 Two vehicles 18,470 (51.2) 5922 (46.4) 5311 (28.0) 3336 (27.6) 33,039 (41.3)  
 Multiple vehicles 4631 (12.8) 1433 (11.2) 1121 (5.9) 808 (6.7) 7993 (10.0)  
Manner of collision       6093.8 (<0.0001)
Not a collision of vehicle in transport 14,647 (40.6) 5978 (46.8) 13,334 (70.2) 8433 (69.9) 42,392 (53.0)  
 Rollover 2175 (6.0) 910 (7.1) 2177 (11.5) 1262 (10.5) 6524 (8.2)  
 Tree 2266 (6.3) 1139 (8.9) 2406 (12.7) 1629 (13.5) 7440 (9.3)  
 Pedestrian 2467 (6.8) 562 (4.4) 511 (2.7) 311 (2.6) 3851 (4.8)  
 Other 7739 (21.4) 3367 (26.4) 8240 (43.4) 5231 (43.37) 24,577 (30.1)  
Collision of vehicle in transport 21,436 (59.4) 6785 (53.1) 5640 (29.7) 3624 (30.1) 37,485 (46.9)  
 Head-on 2735 (7.6) 865 (6.8) 960 (5.1) 524 (4.3) 5084 (6.4)  
 Rear-end 6346 (17.6) 2699 (21.1) 2147 (11.3) 1393 (11.6) 12,585 (15.7)  
 Angle 10,754 (29.8) 2691 (21.1) 2133 (11.2) 1358 (11.3) 16,936 (21.2)  
 Sideswipe 1417 (3.9) 491 (3.8) 366 (1.9) 322 (2.7) 2596 (3.3)  
 Other 184 (0.5) 39 (0.3) 34 (0.2) 27 (0.2) 284 (0.4)  
Time of the crash       13,520.2 (<0.0001)
 Day 22,107 (61.2) 7871 (61.6) 3866 (20.4) 2867 (23.8) 36,711 (45.9)  
 Night 12,124 (33.6) 4556 (35.6) 14,624 (77.0) 8941 (74.1) 40,245 (50.4)  
Weekday/weekend       4382.8 (<0.0001)
 Weekday 23,726 (65.7) 8634 (67.7) 8048 (42.4) 5499 (45.6) 45,907 (57.4)  
 Weekend 11,803 (32.7) 4034 (31.6) 10,807 (56.9) 6499 (53.9) 33,143 (41.5)  
Speed       6359.1 (<0.0001)
 No 29,138 (80.7) 9222 (72.2) 10,293 (54.21) 6052 (50.2) 54,705 (68.4)  
 Yes 6409 (27.3) 3200 (25.1) 8196 (43.2) 5708 (47.3) 23,513 (29.4)  
Ejection       3921.4 (<0.0001)
 Ejected 3956 (11.0) 2105 (16.5) 5669 (29.9) 3564 (29.6) 15,294 (19.1)  
 Not ejected 32,092 (88.7) 10,628 (83.2) 13,250 (69.8) 8443 (70.0) 64,413 (80.6)  
  1. a9.1 % are police reported for alcohol involvement