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Table 3 Multivariable adjusted odds ratios with (95 % CI) of driving error/driving violations by drug and drug categories compared to drivers with no drug and alcohol detecteda

From: Restraint use and risky driving behaviors across drug types and drug and alcohol combinations for drivers involved in a fatal motor vehicle collision on U.S. roadways

  Narcotics Depressants Stimulants Cannabis Alcohol Cannabis + Alcohol Any drug
Driving violations
 Any moving violation 1.32 (1.12, 1.46) 1.50 (1.35, 1.66) 1.84 (1.65, 2.05) 1.38 (1.27, 1.49) 2.15 (2.06, 2.24) 2.13 (1.98, 2.28) 1.84 (1.78, 1.91)
 Reckless violation 1.38 (1.21, 1.58) 1.79 (1.58, 2.0) 1.52 (1.32, 1.75) 1.55 (1.41, 1.72) 2.29 (2.17, 2.43) 2.37 (2.18, 2.57) 2.10 (2.01, 2.20)
 Lane violation 1.36 (1.15, 1.60) 1.41 (1.12, 1.67)   1.48 (1.24, 1.77) 1.48 (1.38, 1.59) 1.50 (1.34, 1.68) 1.47 (1.39, 1.55)
 Passing violation 1.42 (1.20, 1.68) 1.64 (1.39, 1.93)   1.65 (1.38, 1.97) 1.76 (1.63, 1.90) 1.50 (1.33, 1.69) 1.50 (1.42, 1.60)
 Speed-related violation    2.54 (2.03, 3.17) 1.42 (1.19, 1.69) 1.68 (1.53, 1.85) 2.36 (2.05, 2.71) 1.67 (1.55, 1.81)
 Sign violation     1.21 (1.04, 1.39)   1.11 (1.26, 1.44) 1.08 (1.02, 1.15)
 Turning violation     1.56 (1.27, 1.93)   1.12 (1.02, 1.24) 0.96 (0.89, 1.03)
  1. aAdjusted for age, gender, time of day, weekend, number of occupants