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Table 1 Odds ratios for relational, verbal, physical and cyber bullying victimization by exposure to the law and by teacher intervention

From: Evaluation of Iowa’s anti-bullying law

Bullying type Exposure to law Model 1 Model 2
OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Relational 1 year post-law vs. Pre-law 1.27 (1.24, 1.30) 1.24 (1.21, 1.27)
3 years post-law vs. Pre-law 1.14 (1.11, 1.17) 1.08 (1.05, 1.11)
3 years post-law vs. 1 year post-law 0.90 (0.88, 0.92) 0.87 (0.85, 0.90)
Teacher intervention vs. No intervention   0.65 (0.64, 0.65)
Verbal 1 year post-law vs. Pre-law 1.32 (1.29, 1.36) 1.29 (1.26, 1.33)
3 years post-law vs. Pre-law 1.15 (1.12, 1.19) 1.10 (1.06, 1.13)
3 years post-law vs. 1 year post-law 0.87 (0.85,0.90) 0.85 (0.82, 0.87)
Teacher intervention vs. No intervention   0.64 (0.64, 0.65)
Physical 1 year post-law vs. Pre-law 1.32 (1.26, 1.38) 1.28 (1.22, 1.33)
3 years post-law vs. Pre-law 1.09 (1.04, 1.15) 1.03 (0.98, 1.08)
3 years post-law vs. 1 year post-law 0.83 (0.79, 0.87) 0.81 (0.77, 0.84)
Teacher intervention vs. No intervention   0.61 (0.60, 0.62)
Cyber 1 year post-law vs. Pre-law 1.49 (1.40, 1.58) 1.44 (1.36, 1.53)
3 years post-law vs. Pre-law 1.57 (1.48, 1.68) 1.47 (1.38, 1.57)
3 years post-law vs. 1 year post-law 1.06 (1.00, 1.12) 1.02 (0.96, 1.08)
Teacher intervention vs. No intervention   0.55 (0.54, 0.56)
  1. Model 1: Generalized Linear Mixed Models clustering on school district
  2. Model 2: Generalized Linear Mixed Models clustering on school district and controlled for grade, gender, ethnicity, and living situation