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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratios, with 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI), of factors associated with hospital course complications and hospital mortality in trauma patients admitted to the ICU, National Trauma Data Bank, 2013

From: Complications and in-hospital mortality in trauma patients treated in intensive care units in the United States, 2013

  Hospital Complications p-value Hospital Mortality p-value
OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Gender
 Female Reference   Reference  
 Male 1.3 (1.2–1.3) <0.001 1.4 (1.3–1.5) <0.001
Age, years
 18–39 Reference   Reference  
 40–59 1.4 (1.3–1.5) <0.001 1.5 (1.4–1.6) <0.001
 60–79 1.8 (1.7–1.9) <0.001 3.5 (3.2–3.8) <0.001
 >80 1.5 (1.4–1.7) <0.001 15.9 (14.1–17.9) <0.001
ISS category
 <9 Reference   Reference  
 9–15 1.8 (1.6–1.9) <0.001 2.2 (1.7–2.7) <0.001
 16+ 4.0 (3.6–4.4) <0.001 7.3 (5.9–8.9) <0.001
Injury Class
 Blunt Reference   Reference  
 Penetrating 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.294 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.621
 Othera 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 0.280 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.903
Intention
 Assault Reference   Reference  
 Self-harm 0.9 (0.7–1.0) 0.078 2.2 (1.8–2.6) <0.001
 Unintentional 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 0.218 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.299
GCS Score
 >12 Reference   Reference  
 9–11 0.9 (0.8–0.9) <0.001 3.1 (2.7–3.5) <0.001
 3–8 1.1 (1.1–1.2) <0.001 6.6 (6.1–7.1) <0.001
Hypotension on Admission (SBP < 90 mmHg) 1.2 (1.2–1.3) <0.001 2.1 (1.9–2.3) <0.001
Severe Head Injuryb 0.8 (0.7–0.8) <0.001 1.8 (1.7–1.9) <0.001
Mechanical ventilation 6.7 (6.4–7.1) <0.001 7.7 (7.0–8.5) <0.001
Preexisting Comorbidities
 Alcoholism 1.8 (1.7–1.9) <0.001 0.8 (0.8–0.9) <0.001
 Cerebrovascular Accident 1.6 (1.4–1.7) <0.001 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 0.001
 Chronic Kidney Disease 1.9 (1.5–2.4) <0.001 2.0 (1.5–2.6) <0.001
 Congestive Heart Failure 1.7 (1.5–1.9) <0.001 1.8 (1.5–2.1) <0.001
 Coronary Artery Disease 1.6 (1.4–1.8) <0.001 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.882
 Current Smoker 1.2 (1.1–1.2) <0.001 0.5 (0.4–0.5) <0.001
 Diabetes Mellitus 1.3 (1.2–1.3) <0.001 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 0.341
 Peripheral Vascular Disease 1.4 (0.9–1.9) 0.076 4.4 (2.6–7.3) <0.001
 Pulmonary Disease 4.7 (2.6–8.4) <0.001 0.3 (0.1–0.5) <0.001
ACS Trauma Designation
 Level 2 Reference   Reference  
 Level 1 1.1 (1.1–1.2) <0.001 0.9 (0.8–0.9) <0.001
Developed Hospital Complications (Yes/No)c 0.7 (0.6–0.8) <0.001
Number of Complications (range 0–7)    2.3 (1.8–2.8) <0.001
 Acute Kidney Injury 0.9 (0.6–1.2) 0.376
 ARDS 0.6 (0.5–0.7) <0.001
 Cardiac Arrest 9.5 (7.3–12.5) <0.001
 Cerebrovascular Accident 2.1 (1.5–2.9) <0.001
 Decubitus Ulcer 0.2 (0.2–0.3) <0.001
 Deep Vein Thrombosis 0.1 (0.1–0.2) <0.001
 Drug/Alcohol Withdrawal 0.2 (0.1–0.3) <0.001
 Myocardial Infarction 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 0.443
 Pneumonia 0.2 (0.2–0.3) <0.001
 Pulmonary Embolism 0.3 (0.2–0.4) <0.001
 Unplanned Intubation 0.5 (0.4–0.6) <0.001
 Urinary Tract Infection 0.5 (0.4–0.5) <0.001
 Sepsis 2.3 (1.9–2.9) <0.001
  1. CI confidence interval, ISS Injury Severity Score, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, ACS American College of Surgery, SBP systolic blood pressure, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome
  2. aOther injuries includes environmental injuries (e.g., animal attack), drownings, overdoses or toxic ingestions, suffocation, exertional injuries, and unspecified injuries
  3. bSevere Head injury includes Abbreviated Injury Scale scores for Head, Face, and Neck with severity greater than or equal to 4
  4. cReference is no complications