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Table 2 Adjusted increases in helmet use and disparities from before-to-after helmet law implementation

From: Bicycle helmet laws and persistent racial and ethnic helmet use disparities among urban high school students: a repeated cross-sectional analysis

  Dallas San Diego Miami Dade & Broward Counties
Mandate & Penalty Mandate Only Mandate & Penalty Mandate & Penalty
Δ% (CI) p Δ% (CI) p Δ% (CI) p Δ% (CI) p
Before-to-After Increase in Helmet Use
 White, Non-Latino 20.1 (11.7, 28.5) <0.001 18.3 (11.9, 24.8) <0.001 24.4 (18.5, 30.3) <0.001 10.2 (4.8, 15.7) <0.001
 African American, Non-Latino 8.2 (4.7, 11.7) <0.001 0.3 (−5.8, 6.5) 0.915 6.3 (−0.5, 13.0) 0.070 6.1 (3.2, 9.0) <0.001
 Latino 6.2 (2.3, 10.0) 0.002 4.0 (−2.0, 9.9) 0.188 3.1 (−2.1, 8.3) 0.242 4.3 (0.8, 7.9) 0.016
 Asian --- --- 11.9 (3.8, 20.0) 0.004 12.8 (5.0, 20.5) 0.001 --- ---
Increase in Disparity
 White, Non-Latino Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 African American, Non-Latino 11.9 (2.3, 21.4) 0.015 18.0 (8.8, 27.3) <0.001 18.1 (9.3, 27.0) <0.001 4.2 (−1.8, 10.1 0.169
 Latino 14.0 (4.7, 23.2) 0.003 14.4 (5.8, 22.9) 0.001 21.3 (13.0, 29.6) <0.001 5.9 (0.1, 11.7) 0.045
 Asian --- --- 6.4 (3.9, 16.7) 0.221 11.6 (2.5, 20.8) 0.013 --- ---
  1. “---” denotes that the relevant subpopulation was not included because it was too small for stable estimates