Skip to main content

Table 2 Serious/fatal injury of rear-seated adult passengers involved in a side crash: Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (with 95 % CIs) using multilevel logistic regression, NASS/GES, 2011–2014

From: Side impact motor vehicle crashes: driver, passenger, vehicle and crash characteristics for fatally and nonfatally-injured rear-seated adults

  Unadjusted Belt status adjusted Multivariable adjusted with rollovera Multivariable adjusted without rolloverb
Passenger Characteristics
 Age, continuous 0.99 (0.97, 1.01) 0.99 (0.97, 1.01) 1.02 (1.02, 1.02) 1.02 (1.02, 1.02)
 Gender
  Male   ref   ref   ref   ref
  Female 5.38 (4.31, 6.72) 2.51 (2.16, 2.92) 1.43 (1.27, 1.60) 1.07 (0.98, 1.18)
 Seating position
  Left   ref   ref     
  Middle 0.25 (0.17, 0.35) 0.01 (0.01, 0.02)     
  Right 1.28 (1.08, 1.51) 0.98 (0.84, 1.14)     
 Restraint Status
  Yes   ref     ref   ref
  No 9.44 (3.02, 29.50)   - 22.95 (18.36, 28.68) 10.55 (9.12, 12.21)
Driver Characteristics
 Age
  15–19   ref   ref     
  20–44 0.80 (0.71, 0.90) 1.23 (0.88, 1.72)     
  45–64 0.47 (0.41, 0.55) 1.29 (0.89, 1.86)     
  65+ 0.77 (0.65, 0.92) 1.40 (0.88, 2.23)     
 Gender
  Male   ref   ref   ref   ref
  Female 1.59 (1.29, 1.96) 1.77 (1.40, 2.22) 2.36 (2.08, 2.67) 2.25 (2.04, 2.49)
 Restraint Status
  No   ref   ref   ref   ref
  Yes 4.24 (3.42, 5.26) 2.36 (1.63, 3.41) 6.32 (4.75, 8.41) 2.35 (1.84, 3.00)
 Alcohol involved
  No   ref   ref   ref   ref
  Yes 44.95 (9.39, 215.19) 1.60 (1.30, 1.97) 13.76 (10.38, 18.25) 11.98 (9.57, 14.99)
Vehicle Characteristics
 Model year, continuous 0.95 (0.91, 0.99) 0.96 (0.93, 0.98)     
 Model year, categorical
  <1994   ref   ref     
  1994–1997 1.72 (0.85, 3.48) 1.05 (0.51, 2.17)     
  1998–2004 2.18 (1.15, 4.14) 1.83 (0.97, 3.43)     
  2005–2008 1.17 (0.61, 2.26) 1.06 (0.55, 2.02)     
  2009–2014 1.02 (0.53, 1.96) 0.92 (0.48, 1.76)     
 Vehicle type
  Car   ref   ref   ref   ref
  SUV 0.80 (0.61, 1.06) 0.89 (0.73, 1.09) 0.40 (0.34, 0.47) 0.47 (0.41, 0.54)
  Van 0.51 (0.34, 0.78) 0.48 (0.35, 0.67) 0.41 (0.33, 0.51) 0.48 (0.40, 0.56)
  Pickup 0.43 (0.29, 0.66) 0.38 (0.27, 0.54) 0.29 (0.23, 0.37) 0.22 (0.18, 0.28)
Crash Characteristics
 Crash Side
  Same side 2.47 (2.08, 2.94) 2.78 (2.39, 3.23) 2.76 (2.48, 3.08) 2.54 (2.31, 2.79)
  Middle seated 0.47 (0.33, 0.67) 0.01 (0.00, 0.01) 0.64 (0.51, 0.80) 0.74 (0.60, 0.90)
  Opposite side   ref   ref   ref   ref
 Crash Type         
  Single vehicle 19.35 (15.69, 23.87) 13.63 (11.21, 16.58) 4.50 (3.59, 5.64) 5.23 (4.32, 6.32)
  Angle 10.96 (9.28, 12.94) 8.71 (7.40, 10.26) 13.81 (11.15, 17.11) 10.85 (9.24, 12.73)
  Sideswipe-same direction 0.18 (0.11, 0.27) 0.18 (0.13, 0.27) 0.23 (0.15, 0.36) 0.27 (0.18, 0.41)
  Sideswipe-opposite direction ref   ref   ref   ref
 Striking vehicle
  No striking vehicle 4.26 (1.89, 9.60) 2.55 (2.01, 3.23)     
  Multiple vehicle 0.90 (0.33, 2.46) 1.83 (1.27, 2.62)     
  Smaller/similar   ref   ref     
  Larger 1.64 (0.87, 3.09) 1.45 (1.17, 1.78)     
 Rollover
  No   ref   ref   ref   
  Yes 31.66 (7.85, 127.63) 23.17 (5.22, 102.85) 42.40 (31.25, 57.53)   
 Speed related
  No   ref   ref   ref   ref
  Yes 5.99 (2.06, 17.45) 2.14 (1.47, 3.11) 7.70 (6.00, 9.88) 5.70 (4.66, 6.97)
 Time of crash
  Day   ref   ref     
  Night 0.96 (0.78, 1.19) 0.86 (0.64, 1.01)     
 Week of Day
  Weekday   ref   ref     
  Weekend 1.09 (0.89, 1.33) 1.01 (0.86, 1.19)     
  1. aIncludes passengers that experienced a rollover
  2. bPassengers (n=9,318) involved in a rollover were excluded in the model