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Table 1 Distribution of wave 3 participant characteristics at wave 3 and baseline (wave 1) by adolescent volunteering

From: Volunteering in adolescence and young adulthood crime involvement: a longitudinal analysis from the add health study

Participant characteristics during wave-3 Adolescent volunteering (weighted % or mean, and 95 % CI)a  
None
(N = 8003)
Self
(N = 4695)
Adult required
(N = 1238)
Court ordered
(N = 317)
TOTAL
(N = 14,322)
Mean age 22.5 (22.2, 22.7) 22.2 (22.0, 22.5) 21.9 (21.6, 22.2) 22.1 (21.8, 22.5) 22.4 (22.1, 22.6)
Male 53.2 (51.7, 54.7) 45.7 (43.7, 47.7) 42.7 (38.7, 46.7) 83.1 (77.7, 88.6) 50.8 (49.6, 52.0)
Whiteb 75.5 (70.4, 80.7) 79.8 (75.3, 84.2) 71.4 (64.4, 78.5) 73.6 (65.0, 82.2) 76.4 (71.6, 81.2)
African American 18.0 (13.4, 22.6) 13.8 (10.2, 17.4) 19.0 (12.4, 25.6) 18.2 (11.0, 25.4) 16.8 (12.6, 20.9)
Native Americans 2.7 (1.4, 3.9) 2.3 (1.4, 3.2) 2.7 (1.5, 3.9) 3.5 (0.6, 6.4) 2.6 (1.6, 3.6)
Asian 3.8 (2.3, 5.4) 4.2 (2.3, 6.0) 6.8 (3.3, 10.4) 4.7 (−0.1, 9.4) 4.2 (2.5, 5.9)
Baseline characteristics (wave-1)
Believed neighborhood was safe 87.7 (86.0, 89.4) 91.1 (89.4, 92.8) 93.0 (91.0, 94.9) 90.5 (86.6, 94.4) 89.2 (87.8, 90.7)
Believed parents care 94.5 (93.7, 95.3) 97.1 (96.5, 97.7) 97.6 (96.6, 98.6) 95.4 (92.8, 97.9) 95.6 (95.1, 96.1)
Believed friends care 81.7 (80.3, 83.2) 88.6 (87.1, 90.1) 87.7 (84.9, 90.5) 81.7 (74.1, 89.2) 84.4 (83.2, 85.6)
Believed teachers care 47.0 (44.8, 49.2) 59.1 (56.3, 62.0) 61.2 (56.8, 65.6) 38.4 (30.6, 46.1) 51.8 (49.8, 53.9)
Had a mentor figurec 70.1 (67.7, 72.5) 84.1 (82.6, 85.5) 85.7 (83.0, 88.5) 72.1 (66.2, 78.1) 75.8 (74.0, 77.6)
Mean delinquency score 4.4 (4.1, 4.6) 3.5 (3.3, 3.7) 3.7 (3.2, 4.1) 7.1 (6.0, 8.1) 4.1 (3.9, 4.3)
Religiosity Non-religious 17.2 (15.3, 19.1) 10.4 (8.8, 12.0) 7.4 (5.4, 9.5) 16.1 (11.3, 20.8) 14.3 (12.7, 15.8)
Non-practicing 13.6 (12.3, 14.8) 8.6 (7.4, 9.8) 6.1 (4.3, 7.9) 17.5 (12.1, 22.9) 11.5 (10.5, 12.5)
Very religious 69.2 (66.8, 71.7) 81.0 (79.0, 83.1) 86.5 (83.3, 89.6) 66.4 (59.9, 72.9) 74.3 (72.2, 76.3)
Parent Education Less than HS 57.3 (54.4, 60.2) 43.2 (39.6, 46.8) 40.3 (35.6, 44.9) 56.1 (48.0, 64.2) 51.4 (48.5, 54.2)
HS graduate 28.5 (26.6, 30.4) 29.6 (27.2, 32.0) 28.7 (25.2, 32.1) 25.3 (19.0, 31.5) 28.9 (27.3, 30.5)
Some College 9.6 (8.2, 10.6) 15.7 (13.5, 17.9) 17.9 (14.7, 21.0) 10.4 (5.0, 15.9) 12.1 (10.8, 13.3)
College grad 4.8 (3.7, 5.9) 11.5 (9.1, 13.9) 13.2 (10.2, 16.7) 8.2 (4.7, 11.6) 7.7 (6.1, 9.2)
Parents engaged in civic services 43.0 (40.6, 45.4) 58.1 (54.9, 61.3) 58.2 (53.4, 62.9) 48.0 (40.0, 55.9) 49.2 (46.7, 51.7)
Food stamp participants 12.8 (10.5, 15.1) 6.7 (5.1, 8.3) 8.1 (5.3, 10.9) 14.3 (8.2, 20.4) 10.6 (8.6, 12.5)
Ever suspended from school 32.0 (29.1, 34.9) 18.7 (16.3, 21.1) 16.2 (12.9, 19.4) 53.1 (45.7, 60.4) 27.0 (24.4, 29.6)
Ever expelled from school 5.5 (4.5, 6.5) 2.2 (1.5, 2.9) 3.3 (1.4, 5.3) 10.7 (6.3, 15.1) 4.4 (3.5, 5.2)
Worked for pay 57.6 (54.6, 60.6) 63.0 (60.1, 66.0) 54.3 (49.3, 59.4) 65.3 (58.3, 72.3) 59.2 (56.5, 61.9)
Received allowance 43.7 (41.2, 46.3) 48.4 (45.6, 51.1) 51.6 (47.1, 56.1) 48.3 (41.1, 55.5) 45.9 (43.7, 48.2)
  1. HS High school
  2. a missing adolescent volunteering information for 69 participants
  3. b missing race information for 206 participants
  4. c missing mentor information for 50 participants