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Table 2 Rates of illegal behaviors, arrests, and convictions by volunteering status, and unadjusted and adjusted rate differences and rate ratios of comparison

From: Volunteering in adolescence and young adulthood crime involvement: a longitudinal analysis from the add health study

Outcomes
Wave 3
Volunteering
Type
Rate/ 100 PY
(95 % CI)
Weightedb rate differences (95 % CI) Weightedb rate Ratios (95 % CI)
Unadjusted Adjusteda Unadjusted Adjusteda
Illegal behaviors None (Referent) 120 (111, 130) 0 0 1 1
Self 100 (89, 111) -20 (-31, -9.9) -7.7 (-18, 2.7) 0.83 (0.77, 0.88) 0.89 (0.80, 0.99)
Adult-required 139 (121, 157) 19 (0.79, 36) 29 (11, 46) 1.1 (1.0, 1.3) 1.2 (1.0, 1.4)
Court-Ordered 328 (298, 359) 208 (177, 238) 145 (115, 175) 2.8 (2.4, 3.3) 1.9 (1.5, 2.6)
Arrests None (Referent) 5.4 (4.6, 6.1) 0 0 1 1
Self 3.1 (2.2, 4.1) -2.2 (-3.1, -1.4) -1.0 (-1.9, -0.2) 0.59 (0.48, 0.74) 0.69 (0.57, 0.85)
Adult-required 3.4 (1.9, 4.9) -1.9 (-3.4, -0.48) -0.8 (-2.2, 0.7) 0.61 (0.41, 0.91) 0.63 (0.44, 0.90)
Court-Ordered 21 (19, 24) 16 (14, 19) 11 (8.9, 14) 5.1 (2.9, 8.7) 3.2 (2.1, 4.8)
Convictions None (Referent) 2.7 (2.2, 3.2) 0 0 1 1
Self 1.3 (0.7, 1.9) -1.4 (-1.9, -0.88) -0.97 (-1.5, -0.43) 0.49 (0.37, 0.65) 0.61 (0.47, 0.79)
Adult-required 2.3 (1.4, 3.3) -0.38 (-1.3, 0.53) 0.08 (-0.84, 1.0) 0.63 (0.39, 1.0) 0.71 (0.45, 1.1)
Court-Ordered 9.6 (8.0, 11) 6.9 (5.3, 8.4) 4.4 (2.8, 6.0) 4.1 (2.2, 7.5) 2.9 (1.8, 4.8)
Wave 4
Illegal behaviors None (Referent) 61 (54, 68) 0 0 1 1
Self 36 (28, 44) -25 (-33, -18) -14 (-21, -6.5) 0.61 (0.54, 0.70) 0.72 (0.59, 0.88)
Adult-required 56 (44, 69) -4.9 (-18, 7.8) 7.4 (-5.2, 19.9) 0.86 (0.69, 1.1) 1.1 (0.82, 1.5)
Court-Ordered 147 (125, 169) 85 (64, 107) 53 (31, 74) 2.4 (1.7, 3.4) 1.5 (0.92, 2.5)
Arrests None (Referent) 6.1 (5.2, 6.9) 0 0 1 1
Self 2.3 (1.3, 3.2) -3.8 (-4.6, -3.0) -2.2 (-3.0, -1.4) 0.37 (0.32, 0.43) 0.47 (0.38, 0.58)
Adult-required 2.9 (1.4, 4.3) -3.2 (-4.6, -1.9) -1.3 (-2.7, 0.03) 0.47 (0.36, 0.60) 0.71 (0.49, 1.0)
Court-Ordered 15 (12, 17) 8.6 (6.2, 11) 4.8 (2.5, 7.1) 2.1 (1.4, 3.3) 2.1 (1.1, 3.9)
Convictions None (Referent) 1.7 (1.5, 1.9) 0 0 1 1
Self 0.89 (0.68, 1.1) -0.79 (-0.97, -0.60) -0.55 (-0.74 -0.36) 0.57 (0.50, 0.65) 0.64 (0.51, 0.80)
Adult-required 1.1 (0.77, 1.4) -0.57 (-0.89, -0.25) -0.29 (-0.61, 0.03) 0.61 (0.49, 0.77) 0.81 (0.56, 1.2)
Court-Ordered 4.1 (3.5, 4.6) 2.4 (1.8, 2.9) 1.7 (1.1, 2.2) 2.3 (1.8, 3.0) 2.0 (1.2, 3.3)
  1. PY person-years
  2. a adjusted for age, sex, and race of the participant during respective survey waves, neighborhood safety, participant’s perception of relationships with parents, friends, and teachers, presence of a mentor figure in participant’s life, adolescent delinquency, adolescent religiosity, parent education, parent civic engagement, family’s use of food stamps, school suspension, school expulsion, work for pay, and allowance
  3. b the weighting for wave 3 is based on the survey weights, and the weighting for wave 4 is the product of survey weights and inverse probability of attrition weights