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Table 1 Characteristics of driving studies using the SPPB, the TUG, or the RPW as a measure of physical functioning

From: Select physical performance measures and driving outcomes in older adults

First author, Year Study participants Data source Study design Location Study time period Type of driving outcome Source of driving outcome information
SPPB
 Davis, 2011 214 participants aged 70 years and older Project OPAL (Older People and Active Living) Cohort study Bristol, UK 2007–2008 Driving exposure (number of car trips as a driver
per week)
Combination of accelerometry (Actigraph GT1Ms) and daily trips logs
 Gill, 2012 507 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older who were active drivers or nondisabled in walking a quarter mile Precipitating Events Project Cohort study Greater New Haven, Connecticut 1998–2009 Driving cessation (long-term disability in driving a car, indicated by not driving in the past 6 months) Participant responses during monthly interviews
 Sims, 2007 649 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older who reported driving at baseline University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study on Aging (SOA) Cohort study Five central Alabama counties 1999–2003 Driving cessation Participant responses during 2-year telephone follow-up interview
TUG
 Dawson, 2010 111 participants aged 65 and older who were current drivers Participants recruited through announcements throughout the community Cross-sectional study Iowa City, Iowa Not specified Driving ability (safety errors per drive) Video review of performance on a 35-mile road test in an instrumented vehicle
 Emerson, 2012 100 participants aged 65 and older who were current drivers Participants recruited through announcements throughout the community Cohort study Iowa City,
Iowa
Not specified Driving cessation, citations, and crashes (time to driving event over a length of follow-up ranging from 3 to 8 years) Cessation was determined by participant or family report at end of follow-up period (or, if needed, by driving records, ARGOS drive status, death date, or the Driving Habits Questionnaire (DHQ)); citations were tracked with yearly requests to Iowa DOT driving records; crashes were determined from DHQs at annual visits and from Iowa DOT driving records
RPW
 Ball, 2006 1,910 participants aged 55 years and older who were current drivers Maryland Older Drivers Project Cohort study Maryland 1998–2003 Driving crashes (at-fault motor vehicle collision involvement during follow-up period of between 4.18 and 5.13 years) Maryland MVA Administration of Driver Safety Research Office crash records
 Classen, 2013 195 community dwelling current older drivers aged 65 years and older National Older Driver Research and Training Center (NODRTC) study and Cross-sectional study North-central Florida 2004–2006 and 2010–2012 Driving ability (passing or failing an on-road driving test) Road test administered by a certified driving rehabilitation specialist (CDRS)
 Carr, 2011 99 participants aged 52 years and older with dementia who were current drivers Participants recruited through physician referral Cross-sectional study St. Louis, Missouri 2007–2009 Driving ability (passing or failing the Washington University Road Test) Washington University Road Test administered by driving instructors from Independent Drivers, LLC
 Edwards, 2010 1,248 participants aged 55 years and older (1,099 active drivers) Maryland Older Drivers Project Cohort study Maryland 1998–2008 Driving cessation (time to cessation in months over 10-year period) Self-reported driving cessation on the Mobility Questionnaire
 Langford, 2013 1222 participants aged 70 years and older who were active drivers Candrive II/Ozcandrive cohort Cohort study (baseline data analyzed cross-sectionally) British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec, Canada; Queensland, Australia; Wellington, New Zealand 2009–2014 Driving exposure (low mileage vs. high mileage drivers) Self-reported annual driving distance
 Marottoli, 1994 278 participants aged 72 years and older who were current drivers Project Safety cohort Cohort study New Haven, Connecticut 1990–1991 Driving crashes and citations (crashes, moving violations, and being stopped by police in a 1-year period) Participant responses at the 1-year follow-up interview
 Stav, 2008 120 participants aged 65 and older who were current drivers Participants recruited through physician referral and research at University of Florida’s National Older Driver Research and Training Center Cross-sectional study North Central Florida Not specified Driving ability (Global Rating Score assigned based on driving performance during a road test) Global Rating Score assigned by a driving rehabilitation specialist
 Woolnough, 2013 1230 participants aged 70 and older who were active drivers Candrive II/ Ozcandrive cohort Cohort study British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec, Canada; Queensland, Australia; Wellington, New Zealand 2009–2014 Driving crashes (at-fault or not-at-fault crashes in the past 2 years) Data on crashes obtained from provincial/state jurisdictions using participant driver license numbers
  1. SPPB short physical performance battery, TUG timed up-and-go test, RPW rapid pace walk