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Table 1 Modified Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale ratings for the 10 case-control or case-cohort studies included

From: Risk markers for fatal and non-fatal prescription drug overdose: a meta-analysis

  Selection (score)     Comparability (score) Exposure (score)    Total score
Case definition Representative of cases Selections of controls Definition of controls Control for important covariates Ascertainment of exposure Same method of ascertainment for participants Nonresponse rate Out of 10 points
Bohnert et al. 2011 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 10 (high)
Brady et al. 2015 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 10 (high)
Cerdá et al. 2013 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 9 (high)
Dilokthornsakul et al. 2016 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 10 (high)
Gomes et al. 2011 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 10 (high)
Lanier et al. 2012 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 6 (low)
Paulozzi et al. 2012 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 8 (high)
Peirce et al. 2012 1 1 2 1 0 1 1 1 8 (high)
Whitmire and Adams 2010 0 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 10 (high)
Zedler et al. 2014 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 10 (high)
         mean 9.0