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Table 3 Modified Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale ratings for the 12 cross-sectional studies

From: Risk markers for fatal and non-fatal prescription drug overdose: a meta-analysis

  Representativeness of sample Sample size Non-respondents Ascertainment of the risk marker Comparability Ascertainment of the outcome Statistical test Out of 10 points
CDC Medicaid. 2009 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 5 (low)
CDC Non-illicit Drugs Utah 2005 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 5 (low)
CDC Prescription opioid pain relievers. 2011 1 0 0 1 1 2 1 6 (low)
CDC Urbanization, New Mexico, 2005 1 0 0 2 2 2 1 8 (high)
Coben et al. 2010 1 0 0 1 1 2 1 6 (low)
Havens et al. 2011a 1 0 0 1 2 1 1 5 (low)
Hall et al. 2008 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 5 (low)
Hulse et al. 2001 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 4 (low)
Mack 2013 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 5 (low)
Piercefield et al. 2010 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 5 (low)
Rudd et al. 2016 1 0 0 1 1 2 1 6 (low)
Silva et al. 2013 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 5 (low)
        mean 5.4