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Table 5 Characteristics of studies evaluating risk markers for prescription drug overdose

From: Risk markers for fatal and non-fatal prescription drug overdose: a meta-analysis

First author, Year Study subjects Data source Study design Location Study time period Source of outcome information Source of risk marker information
Bauer et al. 2016 Adults seen at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP) BHCHP data and Massachusetts Department of Public Health annual death occurrence files Retrospective record review (cohort) Boston, Massachusetts January 1, 2003 - December 31, 2008 Massachusetts Department of Public Health annual death occurrence files BHCHP electronic health records
Bohnert et al. 2011 a All unintentional prescription opioid overdose decedents and a random sample of patients a month those individuals who used Veteran’s Health Services in 2004 or 2005 and received opioid therapy for pain Veteran Affairs National Patient Care Database and National Death Index Case-cohort study United States Fiscal Year (FY) 2004 -FY 2008 National Death Index Veteran Affairs National Patient Care Database
Bohnert et al. 2012 a All treated in Veterans Health Administration facilities during the fiscal year 1999 who were alive at the start of fiscal year 2000. Veteran Affairs National Patient Care Database and National Death Index Cohort United States Oct 1, 1999 - Sep 30, 2006 National Death Index Veteran Affairs National Patient Care Database
Brady et al. 2015 New York State ED patients who subsequently died of prescription drug overdose New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative Nested case-control New York, United States 2006-2010 New York City vital statistics records New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) ED data
Caudarella et al. 2016 Persons who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada - 2 cohorts: Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS) and AIDS Care Cohort to Evaluate Access to Survival Services (ACCESS) VIDUS, ACCESS, and provincial Vital Statistics Agency Prospective cohort Vancouver, Canada May, 1996 - December, 2011 provincial Vital Statistics Agency Self-report
CDC Medicaid 2009 Residents of Washington State The Washington State Heath and Recovery Services Administration Cross-sectional Washington State, United States 2004-2007 National Center for Health Statistics and Medicaid National Center for Health Statistics and Medicaid
CDC Non-illicit Drugs Utah 2005 b Utah residents Centralized state medical examiner system and office of planning and budget state population estimates Cross-sectional Utah, United States 1991-2003 Office of the state medical examiner Office of the state medical examiner
CDC Prescription opioid pain relievers 2011 Drug overdose deaths in the US population National Vital Statistics System Cross-sectional United States 2008 National Vital Statistics System National Vital Statistics System
CDC Urbanization, New Mexico, 2005 New Mexico residents New Mexico Office of Medical Investigator, Office of Management and Budget, US Census data Cross-sectional New Mexico, United States 1994-2003 New Mexico Office of Medical Investigator New Mexico Office of Medical Investigator, Office of Management and Budget and U.S. census
Cerdá et al. 2013 Decedents in New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of New York City Case-control New York City, NY, United States 2000-2006 Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of New York City
Coben et al. 2010 Hospitalizations for poisonings National Inpatient Sample from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Improvement Cross-sectional United States 2006 Hospital discharge data Hospital discharge data
Dilokthornsakul et al. 2016 Colorado Medicaid population, 2009-2014 Medicaid claims database Retrospective nested case-control Colorado, United States July 2009 - June 2014 Colorado Medicaid claims database Colorado Medicaid claims database
Dunn et al. 2010 Individuals receiving care from the group health cooperative and who were age 18 years or older, initiated treatment with opioids between 1997 and 2005, received 3 or more opioid analgesic prescriptions in the 90 days after initiation and received a non-cancer pain diagnosis from the prescribing physician within 2 weeks prior to the initial opioid prescription Group Health Cooperative claims data Retrospective cohort Washington State, United States January 1, 1997 -December 31, 2006 Overdose events were assessed primarily through medical record review Group Health Cooperative data
Gomes et al. 2011 c Residents of Ontario Canada 15-64 who were eligible for public drug coverage and had received an opioid for nonmalignant pain Ontario Public Drug Benefit Program; Ontario Cancer Registry Population-based nested matched case-control Ontario, Canada Aug 1, 1997 -Dec 31, 2006 Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario Ontario Public Drug Benefit Program
Hall et al. 2008 Residents of West Virginia Death certificates- Health Statistics Center of the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources and cross-referenced with investigations from the Chief Medical Examiner, West Virginia Board of Pharmacy and US Census data Cross-sectional West Virginia, United States 2006 Death certificates- Health Statistics Center of the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources and cross-referenced with investigations from the Chief Medical Examiner Death certificates- Health Statistics Center of the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources and cross-referenced with investigations from the Chief Medical Examiner and US. Census
Hartung et al. 2007 Patients receiving at least one script for of a long acting opioid of ≥28 day supply who had ≥180 days of continuous Medicaid fee for service eligibility prior to the first dispensing Medicaid administrative claims data Retrospective cohort Oregon, United States Jan 1, 2000 - Dec 31, 2004 Medicaid administrative claims, by ICD-9 codes Medicaid administrative claims
Havens et al. 2011a Residents of rural Appalachian counties in Kentucky that use drugs and are over 18 and had used drugs in the past 30 days Respondent driven sample Cross-sectional Any Appalachian county of rural Kentucky, United States Nov 2008-Sep 2010 Self-report Self-report
Hulse et al. 2001 Adolescents (12-19 years of age) presenting to the emergency department with conditions related to alcohol or drug use who had a nurse assessment in 4 metropolitan hospitals in a 4-week period, Perth, Australia Medical record data Cross-sectional Perth Australia 4-week period in 2000 Medical record Medical record
Lanier et al. 2012 Decedents 18 years or older who died from prescription opioids in Utah from October 26, 2008 to October 25, 2009 and Utah 2008 Behavioral risk marker Surveillance System respondents who reported prescription opioids use during the previous year Utah 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Matched case-control Utah, United States 2008-2009 Utah Office of the Medical Examiner (OME) OME, Next-of-kin interviews, Utah 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
Mack 2013 Drug overdose deaths among women and the US population National Vital Statistics System Cross-sectional United States 2010 National Vital Statistics System National Vital Statistics System
Paulozzi et al. 2012 Decedents 10 years and older who died of unintentional drug overdose and had at least one record in the New Mexico Prescription Drug Monitoring Program and controls were identified through the state prescription drug monitoring program New Mexico Office of Medical Investigator, and New Mexico Prescription Drug Monitoring Program data Matched case-control New Mexico, United States Oct 1, 2006 - Mar 31, 2008 New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator New Mexico State Prescription Drug Monitoring Program
Peirce et al. 2012 Persons 18 years and older who had at least 1 outpatient prescription filled for a Schedule II through Schedule IV controlled substance in West Virginia West Virginia State Board of Pharmacy Controlled Substance Monitoring Program and Forensic Drug Database Case-control West Virginia, United States Jul 1, 2005 - Dec 31, 2007 Forensic Drug Database West Virginia State Board of Pharmacy Controlled Substance Monitoring Program and Forensic Drug Database
Piercefield et al. 2010 c Oklahoma residence in which the medical examiner reasoned that at least one prescription or over the counter drug contributed to the unintentional drug death Oklahoma medical examiner data and the US census Cross-sectional Oklahoma, United States Jan 1, 2004 – Dec 31, 2006 Oklahoma State the Medical Examiner case record Oklahoma OME case record
Rudd et al. 2016 Drug overdose deaths in the US population National Vital Statistics System Cross-sectional United States 2013-2014 National Vital Statistics System National Vital Statistics System
Seal et al. 2012 a Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who received at least 1 non-cancer related pain diagnosis within 1 year of entering the Veteran’s Affairs health care system Veteran Affairs National Patient Care Database Retrospective cohort United States Oct 1, 2005 - Dec 31, 2010 Veteran Affairs National Patient Care Database Veteran Affairs National Patient Care Database
Silva et al. 2013 A sample of young nonmedical users of prescription drugs Chain referral sampling and recruitment from different project phases Cross-sectional New York, New York and Los Angeles, California, United States Oct 1, 2009 –Mar 31 2011 Self-report Self-report
Turner and Liang 2015 Aetna Health Maintenance Program beneficiaries aged 18-64 years, enrolled at least 1 year, who filled at least two prescriptions for Schedule I or II opioids for non-cancer pain HMO enrollment files and claims for services and prescriptions Retrospective cohort United States January 2009- July 2012 HMO enrollment files and claims for services and prescriptions HMO enrollment files and claims for services and prescriptions
Whitmire and Adams 2010 d North Carolina Medicaid population, 2007 Medicaid administrative claims data Matched case-control North Carolina, United States 2006-2007 North Carolina resident death records, Medicaid administrative claims
Zedler et al. 2014 Veterans Health Administration patients who were dispensed an opioid by VHA VHA Medical SAS datasets Retrospective nested case-control United States October 1, 2010 - September 30, 2012 VHA Medical SAS Datasets VHA Medical SAS Datasets
  1. MMEs morphine milligram equivalents, CPT current procedural terminology, ICD-9 international classification of diseases, 9th revision, ICD-10 international classification of diseases, 10th revision, CS controlled substances, OME office of the medical examine
  2. aStudies are not independent
  3. bInformation refers to deaths occurring between 1999 and 2003
  4. cInformation refers to deaths occurring between 2004 and 2006
  5. dMatching variables not included in risk markers