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Table 6 Risk markers for prescription drug overdose stratified by study characteristic

From: Risk markers for fatal and non-fatal prescription drug overdose: a meta-analysis

  Sex Race Psychiatric disorder Substance use disorder Rural residence
  N Random effects 95% CI N Random effects 95% CI N Random effects 95% CI N Random effects 95% CI N Random effects 95% CI
Unadjusted OR 22 1.33 1.17, 1.51 14 2.28 1.93, 2.70 11 3.94 3.09, 5.01 10 5.24 3.53, 7.76 5 0.93 0.72, 1.19
Outcome definition
 Fatal overdose 15 1.50 1.34, 1.68 11 2.65 2.26, 3.11 4 3.81 2.88, 5.05 4 7.05 5.15, 9.66 5 0.93 0.72,1.19
 Fatal and nonfatal overdose 7 0.97 0.77, 1.21 3 0.99 0.53, 1.88 7 4.02 2.61, 6.21 6 4.08 1.78, 9.38 - - -
Study Design
 Case control 6 1.34 0.87, 2.06 6 2.81 2.04, 3.85 5 3.58 3.04, 4.20 5 5.65 4.10, 7.81 2 1.08 0.81, 1.43
 Cohort 5 1.24 0.77, 2.01 2 1.72 0.64, 4.65 4 5.70 3.78, 8.59 3 8.34 4.32, 16.13 - - -
 Cross-sectional 11 1.37 1.19, 1.59 6 2.07 1.61, 2.65 2 2.54 1.88, 3.43 2 2.12 1.43, 3.14 3 0.86 0.63, 1.18
Quality Assessment Score
 High (7-10) 10 1.27 0.89, 1.80 7 2.43 1.80, 3.27 9 4.29 3.32, 5.56 8 6.59 4.41, 9.85 2 0.95 0.60, 1.52
 Low (0-6) 12 1.39 1.21, 1.60 7 2.14 1.68, 2.72 2 2.54 1.88, 3.43 2 2.12 1.43, 3.14 3 0.92 0.61, 1.37
Study Outcome
 Medication overdose 8 1.40 1.18, 1.65 4 2.33 1.68, 3.22 2 3.80 2.02, 7.12 2 4.84 1.42, 16.55 3 0.86 0.63, 1.18
 Prescription opioid overdose 7 1.29 0.96, 1.74 4 2.50 2.06, 3.03 5 4.07 3.50, 4.72 4 6.21 4.60, 8.38 1 0.92 0.66, 1.27
 Overdose of any substance 7 1.30 0.91, 1.86 6 1.98 1.37, 2.88 4 3.70 1.89, 7.24 4 4.86 1.57, 15.05 1 1.23 0.94, 1.59
Exclusions
 Hulse et al. and Coben et al. 20 1.36 1.19, 1.57 - - - - - - - - - - - -
 Hulse et al., Coben et al., and Cerda et al. 19 1.41 1.23, 1.62 - - - - - - - - - - - -
 CDC 2009 Total Population 21 1.32 1.16, 1.51 - - - - - - - - - - - -
 CDC 2009 Medicaid only 21 1.33 1.17, 1.52 - - - - - - - - - - - -
 Havens and Silva - - - 12 2.54 2.17, 2.97 - - - - - - - - -
 Seal et al. - - - - - - 10 3.79 2.95, 4.86 - - - - - -
 Seal et al., Bohnert et al. 2011, 2012 - - - - - - 8 3.55 2.39, 5.27 - - - - - -
 Bohnert et al. 2012 - - - - - - - - - 9 4.83 2.79, 8.36 - - -
 Havens - - - - - - - - - 9 5.92 3.99, 8.78 - - -
 CDC Non-illicit Drugs Utah 2005 - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 0.85 0.68, 1.07
 Piercefield et al. 2010 - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 1.01 0.77, 1.33