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Table 7 Risk markers for prescription drug overdose stratified by study characteristics

From: Risk markers for fatal and non-fatal prescription drug overdose: a meta-analysis

  Age < 25 Age 35-44 Age 45-54 Age 55 and older
  N Random effects 95% CI N Random effects 95% CI N Random effects 95% CI N Random effects 95% CI
Unadjusted OR 14 0.27 0.20, 0.37 14 1.52 1.31, 1.76 14 1.38 1.18, 1.61 14 0.37 0.29, 0.48
Outcome definition
 Fatal overdose - - - - - - - - - - - -
 Fatal and nonfatal overdose - - - - - - - - - - - -
Study Design
 Case control 5 0.60 0.43, 0.83 5 1.54 1.26, 1.88 5 1.26 0.90, 1.76 5 0.30 0.12, 0.72
 Cohort 1 0.34 0.21, 0.55 1 2.54 2.20, 2.93 1 1.83 1.60, 2.11 1 0.19 0.16, 0.22
 Cross-sectional 8 0.17 0.14, 0.21 8 1.41 1.22, 1.64 8 1.39 1.12, 1.72 8 0.47 0.38, 0.58
Quality Assessment Score
 High (7-10) 5 0.56 0.38, 0.81 5 1.78 1.35, 2.33 5 1.33 0.98, 1.80 5 0.24 0.11, 0.55
 Low (0-6) 9 0.18 0.15, 0.23 9 1.39 1.21, 1.61 9 1.40 1.14, 1.71 9 0.47 0.39, 0.58
Study Outcome
 Medication overdose 6 0.22 0.17, 0.27 6 1.57 1.23, 1.99 6 1.67 1.47, 1.90 6 0.35 0.20, 0.61
 Prescription opioid overdose 6 0.34 0.14, 0.83 6 1.64 1.40, 1.93 6 1.25 0.85, 1.83 6 0.42 0.26, 0.68
 Overdose of any substance 2 0.25 0.12, 0.51 2 1.09 1.03, 1.16 2 1.09 0.76, 1.56 2 0.28 0.07, 1.11
Exclusions
Bohnert et al. 2011 and Paulozzi et al. 12 0.23 0.17, 0.32 12 1.53 1.30, 1.79 12 1.48 1.26, 1.73 12 0.44 0.35, 0.57