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Table 8 Definitions for psychiatric disorder and substance use disorder by study

From: Risk markers for fatal and non-fatal prescription drug overdose: a meta-analysis

  Risk marker definition
First author, Year Psychiatric Disorder (PD) Substance Use Disorder (SUD) Rural/Urban
Bohnert et al. 2011 a Non-substance use psychiatric disorders Any SUD including alcohol N/A
Bohnert et al. 2012 a Bipolar I or II disorders, Any depressive disorder, Post-traumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia Any SUD including alcohol N/A
Brady et al. 2015 Depression diagnosis (ICD-10 codes 298, 311, 309.0, 309.1) Drug dependence (ICD-10 code 304) N/A
CDC Non-illicit Drugs Utah 2005 N/A N/A Davis, Weber and Salt Lake City and Utah counties were categorized as urban and the remaining counties were categories were categorized as rural
CDC Urbanization, New Mexico, 2005 b N/A N/A Definition 1: Counties in metropolitan areas are considered urban and the remaining counties of residence were categorized as rural
Definition 2: Counties in metropolitan or micrpolitan areas are considered urban and the remaining counties of residence were categorized as rural
Dilokthornsakul et al. 2016 “Other psychiatric illness” (includes depression, bipolar/mixed mania, schizophrenia, anxiety/panic/obsessive compulsive, personality disorder, other psychosis; excludes drug/alcohol abuse) Drug/alcohol abuse (ICD-9 codes 303.xx, 304.xx) N/A
Dunn et al. 2010 Depression diagnosis Substance abuse diagnosis two years prior to entry in the cohort N/A
Havens et al. 2011a Major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, or antisocial personality disorder Ever in drug treatment N/A
Lanier et al. 2012 N/A N/A The Utah Department of Health considers an urban county to have a population density exceeded 100 persons per sq. mile. Using this classification, only four counties in the state of Utah are considered “urban”: Salt Lake, Davis, Utah, and Weber.
Piercefield et al. 2010 N/A N/A County of residence was considered urban if the county population exceeded 500 persons per sq. mile of land area, with the remainder termed rural counties. Two counties: Oklahoma and Tulsa were categorized as “urban”.
Seal et al. 2012 Mental health diagnoses (ICD-CM-9 codes 290-319: including depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders) and post-traumatic stress disorder N/A N/A
Silva et al. 2013 Care in a psychiatric hospital Ever in drug treatment N/A
Turner and Liang 2015 Depression diagnosis “Other substance abuse” (excludes alcohol abuse) N/A
Whitmire and Adams 2010 “Mental disorders” excluding drug dependence Drug dependence Rural/urban classification variable was created based on the North Carolina accountability regions. The ten counties that were a part of the accountability regions and used to define the “urban” classification are: Buncombe, Cumberland, Davidson, Durham, Forsyth, Gaston, Guilford, Mecklenburg, Onslow, and Wake counties.
Zedler et al. 2014 Depression diagnosis Substance abuse and nonopioid substance dependence (excludes opioid dependence) N/A
  1. aNot independent study populations overlap by 2 years
  2. bMetro and micropolitan area definitions: https://www.census.gov/geographies/reference-files/time-series/demo/metro-micro/historical-delineation-files.html