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Table 4 Comparing the hazard ratios of first maltreatment report before age six years accounting for out of state emigration and linkage parameters, ALCANLink (n = 1235)

From: Quantifying sources of bias in longitudinal data linkage studies of child abuse and neglect: measuring impact of outcome specification, linkage error, and partial cohort follow-up

Factor Accounting for emigration (probabilistic) Not accounting for emigration (probabilistic) % changea Accounting for emigration (deterministic) % changea Not accounting for emigration (deterministic) % changea
HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
Military paid births (ref = nonmilitary) 1.1 0.7, 1.8 0.7 0.4, 1.2 0.333 1.2 0.6, 2.1 0.081 0.7 0.4, 1.4 0.309
Race (ref = White)
 Alaska Native 3.0 2.2, 3.9 3.3 2.5, 4.4 0.114 3.0 2.2, 4.3 0.019 3.6 2.6, 5.0 0.204
 Other 2.3 1.4, 3.8 2.3 1.4, 3.8 0.000 2.3 1.3, 4.3 0.006 2.4 1.3, 4.3 0.039
Unmarried marital status ref. = Married) 3.8 2.9, 5.1 4.1 3.1, 5.5 0.079 3.1 2.3, 4.4 0.177 3.1 2.2, 4.3 0.186
Medicaid birth (ref = no) 3.7 2.6, 5.2 4.1 2.9, 5.7 0.104 3.7 2.4, 5.6 0.005 4.0 2.6, 6.1 0.088
<12 years maternal education (ref = 12+ years) 3.1 2.3, 4.2 3.3 2.5, 4.5 0.058 2.3 1.6, 3.3 0.267 2.5 1.7, 3.6 0.212
Female (ref = Male) 1.3 1.0, 1.7 1.2 0.9, 1.6 0.024 1.2 0.9, 1.6 0.024 1.5 1.1, 2.0 0.152
Maternal age (ref = 25+ years)
 20–24 years 2.2 1.6, 3.0 2.2 1.6, 3.0 0.009 2.2 1.6, 3.0 0.009 2.2 1.6, 3.0 0.009
  < 20 years 3.5 2.5, 5.1 3.7 2.5, 5.3 0.034 3.7 2.5, 5.3 0.034 3.1 2.1, 4.7 0.121
Birth weight < 2500 g (ref = 2500 + g) 1.7 1.4, 2.0 1.6 1.3, 1.9 0.060 1.7 1.3, 2.1 0.005 1.5 1.2, 1.9 0.096
Any Maternal smoking 2 years prior to birth (ref = No) 2.9 2.2, 3.9 3.0 2.2, 4.0 0.015 3.6 2.6, 5.0 0.225 3.5 2.5, 4.9 0.193
Any Birth defect listed on birth certificate (ref = No) 1.2 0.5, 2.8 1.2 0.5, 2.7 0.026 1.1 0.3, 3.3 0.125 1.1 0.4, 3.2 0.071
Mother Lost jobb (ref = No) 2.4 1.7, 3.5 2.4 1.6, 3.4 0.025 2.1 1.3, 3.4 0.124 2.3 1.5, 3.7 0.034
Moved to a new addressb (ref = No) 1.6 1.2, 2.1 1.6 1.2, 2.0 0.019 1.6 1.2, 2.2 0.012 1.4 1.0, 2.0 0.103
  1. HR Hazard Ratio, 95% CI 95% Confidence Interval, ref reference level
  2. a% change compared to HR accounting for emigration and using probabilistic linkages
  3. bDuring the 12 months before the child was born