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Table 1 Characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries initiating antihypertensive monotherapy between 2008 and 2011 (n = 122,629)

From: Initiation of antihypertensive monotherapy and incident fractures among Medicare beneficiaries

  ACE
n = 40,186
ARB
n = 10,954
BB
n = 36,972
CCB
n = 18,411
THZ
n = 16,106
Cohort Cohort SMRW Cohort SMRW Cohort SMRW Cohort SMRW
Mean Age, std. (years) 74, 6.7 75, 6.7 74, 12.9 75, 7.0 74, 7.1 76, 7.4 75, 10.0 75, 7.0 75, 10.8
Mean Frailty Index, std 0.1, 0.1 0.1, 0.1 0.1, 0.2 0.1, 0.1 0.1, 0.1 0.1, 0.2 0.1, 0.2 0.1, 0.1 0.1, 0.2
Male 42.0 36.6 41.5 41.7 42.2 37.8 42.1 29.3 42.4
White Race 87.1 79.0 87.3 88.8 86.9 81.8 86.9 86.5 87.2
Low-Income Subsidy 5.3 5.5 5.5 4.6 5.4 5.8 5.4 5.0 5.2
1–2 Meds Filleda 61.3 62.4 61.8 58.6 61.4 59.8 62.5 66.9 62.5
3–4 Meds Filleda 27.7 26.5 27.4 28.7 27.2 27.1 26.3 24.7 26.5
5 + Meds Filleda 11.1 11.2 10.8 12.7 11.4 13.0 11.3 8.5 11.1
Loop Diuretic 5.8 5.9 5.9 7.0 6.1 6.4 6.0 3.7 6.4
Antiarrhythmic 2.6 4.2 2.5 5.4 2.8 4.5 2.7 2.7 3.0
Antidepressantb 15.2 14.9 15.2 16.0 15.6 15.9 15.6 15.4 15.5
Antipilepticb 7.4 7.3 7.3 8.0 7.5 8.2 7.6 7.7 7.4
Anxiolytic 3.4 3.4 3.5 4.0 3.6 4.1 3.6 3.7 3.5
Benzodiazpeneb 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.1
Bisphosphonate 10.6 12.4 10.6 11.2 10.4 11.6 10.7 13.0 10.8
Antipsychoticb 3.5 2.8 3.5 4.2 3.7 4.9 3.7 3.8 3.7
Skeletal Muscle Relaxantb 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.5 6.5 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.4
Opioid 27.0 26.2 27.4 30.2 27.2 29.5 27.5 28.0 28.2
Hypnoticb 6.1 7.9 6.0 7.5 6.1 7.1 6.2 6.7 6.2
Diabetes 31.6 30.6 31.0 19.0 32.8 18.3 31.4 13.5 32.9
Chronic Kidney Disease 8.7 10.5 8.8 10.6 9.4 13.1 9.3 6.3 9.8
Parkinson’s Disease 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.5 1.2 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.2
Alzheimer’s Disease 3.2 2.4 3.1 3.0 3.4 4.4 3.3 3.1 3.6
Osteoporosis 14.1 17.3 14.2 16.0 14.1 17.4 14.4 16.9 14.6
Arrhythmia 10.5 10.9 10.4 32.9 10.6 25.4 10.6 8.5 11.6
Osteoarthritis 14.4 17.8 14.3 16.1 14.7 15.5 14.9 15.7 15.1
Rheumatoid Arthritis 2.5 3.4 2.5 3.2 2.6 3.0 2.7 2.5 2.6
Stroke 13.7 13.5 13.5 16.6 15.0 16.4 15.1 10.3 14.9
Myocardial Infarction 0.6 0.2 0.6 4.0 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.1 0.7
Hypertension 83.3 88.2 83.5 63.3 84.3 78.6 85.3 76.8 85.0
Orthostatic Hypotension 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.1 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.6
Syncope 3.8 4.2 3.7 7.4 4.0 6.1 4.2 3.0 4.3
Dementia 5.8 4.2 5.6 5.9 6.1 8.2 6.1 5.6 6.1
Urinary Incontinence 4.7 4.8 4.7 4.9 4.8 5.5 4.9 4.5 4.9
Dyslipidemia 64.8 70.2 64.2 64.0 65.7 58.2 65.3 57.2 65.3
Obesity 4.4 4.2 4.5 3.6 4.6 3.3 4.4 4.1 4.4
Home Oxygen Use 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.6 5.3 2.3 2.7 2.6
Walker/Wheelchair Use 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.8 2.3 3.3 2.3 2.4 2.5
Hospital Bed Use 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.6
Difficulty Walking 7.7 7.5 7.6 8.8 8.2 9.5 8.4 8.2 8.3
Vertigo 11.5 12.4 11.3 14.5 12.1 14.1 12.4 12.4 12.1
Ambulance Transport 6.9 4.7 6.8 12.4 7.3 12.5 7.3 5.4 7.5
Cancer Screenings 41.0 39.2 40.9 39.3 40.4 35.5 40.6 43.6 40.1
Hospital Admissions 13.2 10.1 13.2 25.5 13.6 23.8 13.4 10.0 14.3
  1. aNumber of number of distinct drug prescriptions filled in the 14 days prior to antihypertensive initiation
  2. bMedication indicated to be associated with fracture risk according to the 2015 Beers Medication Guideline (By the American Geriatrics Society 2015 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel 2015)
  3. Prevalence of baseline characteristics was identified 12 months prior to initiation of antihypertensive monotherapy
  4. Race was missing for a total of 147 beneficiaries and these were excluded from the SMR weighted analysis
  5. Standardized mortality ratio weighting (SMRW) was used to weight beneficiaries of each drug class to achieve the same baseline covariate distribution as beneficiaries receiving an ACE. Beneficiaries initiating with ACEs were assigned a weight of 1 and all others were assigned a weight that was the ratio of the propensity score to 1 minus the propensity score
  6. ACE Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, BB beta blockers, CCB calcium channel blockers, or THZ thiazide diuretics