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Table 2 Rates and hazard ratios of incident fractures within the first year of initiating antihypertensive monotherapy

From: Initiation of antihypertensive monotherapy and incident fractures among Medicare beneficiaries

Drug Class 1–14 days after initiation 15–365 days after initiation
# Fractures P-Yrs Rate Per 10,000 P-Yrs (95% CI) SMRW HR (95% CI) # Fractures P-Yrs Rate Per 10,000 P-Yrs (95% CI) SMRW HR (95% CI)
ACE 54 1539 351 (266, 454) ref 1271 36,618 347 (328, 367) ref
ARB 14 420 333 (190, 546) 0.92 (0.49, 1.75) 322 10,032 321 (287, 358) 0.96 (0.84, 1.09)
BB 58 1416 410 (314, 526) 1.00 (0.65, 1.54) 1375 33,449 411 (390, 433) 1.09 (1.00, 1.19)
CCB 27 705 383 (258, 550) 0.82 (0.50, 1.36) 720 16,540 435 (404, 468) 1.11 (1.00, 1.24)
THZ 27 617 438 (294, 628) 1.40 (0.78, 2.52) 562 14,656 384 (353, 416) 1.02 (0.90, 1.15)
  1. P-Yrs person-years (calculated by dividing the total number of follow-up days by 365.25)
  2. SMRW Standardized mortality ratio weight, calculated adjusting for all baseline covariates
  3. Incident fracture rates and corresponding 95% CIs were defined as the total number of incident fractures by the total P-Yrs at risk. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using SMR weighted Cox proportional hazard models using a ‘first-treatment-carried-forward’ analysis design. CIs were calculated using robust standard errors to account for the SMRWs
  4. ACE Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, BB beta blockers, CCB calcium channel blockers, or THZ thiazide diuretics