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Table 3 Rates of probable low and normal bone mineral density fractures within 1 year of initiating antihypertensive monotherapy

From: Initiation of antihypertensive monotherapy and incident fractures among Medicare beneficiaries

Drug Class Probable Low Bone Mineral Density Fractures Normal Bone Mineral Density Fractures
# Fractures P-Yrs Rate Per 10,000 P-Yrs (95% CI) SMRW HR (95% CI) # Fractures P-Yrs Rate Per 10,000 P-Yrs (95% CI) SMRW HR (95% CI)
ACE 424 38,157 111 (101, 122) ref 901 38,157 236 (221, 252) ref
ARB 99 10,452 95 (77, 115) 0.93 (0.74, 1.17) 237 10,452 227 (199, 257) 0.97 (0.84, 1.13)
BB 464 34,864 133 (121, 146) 1.08 (0.93, 1.26) 969 34,864 278 (261, 296) 1.09 (0.98, 1.21)
CCB 280 17,245 162 (144, 182) 1.13 (0.95, 1.35) 467 17,245 271 (274, 296) 1.09 (0.96, 1.24)
THZ 171 15,273 112 (96, 130) 0.85 (0.68, 1.06) 418 15,273 274 (248, 301) 1.12 (0.98, 1.29)
  1. P-Yrs person-years (calculated by dividing the total number of follow-up days by 365.25)
  2. SMRW Standardized mortality ratio weight, calculated adjusting for all baseline covariates
  3. Incident fracture rates and corresponding 95% CIs were defined as the total number of incident fractures by the total P-Yrs at risk. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using SMR weighted Cox proportional hazard models using a ‘first-treatment-carried-forward’ analysis design. CIs were calculated using robust standard errors to account for the SMRWs”
  4. Probable low bone mineral density fractures included hip and radius fractures. All other non-vertebral fractures were defined as normal bone mineral density fractures
  5. ACE Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, BB beta blockers, CCB calcium channel blockers, or THZ thiazide diuretics