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Table 4 Age-group specific rates of sports/recreation-related injuries and proportions of TBI among school-age children: NC, 2010–2014

From: Characteristics of sports and recreation-related emergency department visits among school-age children and youth in North Carolina, 2010–2014

Sport/ recreational activitya,b Age group
5–9 years of age 10–14 years of age 15–18 years of age
No. Ratec % with TBI P-valued No. Ratec % with TBI P-valued No. Ratec % with TBI P-valued
Team sports 6551 204.6 13.2 <.001 35,750 1108.3 11.5 0.002 30,520 1190.2 13.7 0.87
 American tackle football 2274 71 12.8 0.05 12,953 401.6 13.4 <.001 9193 358.5 16.9 <.001
 Basketball 1427 44.6 12.5 0.21 10,204 316.3 8.6 <.001 11,711 456.7 8.5 <.001
 Soccer 1196 37.3 9.8 0.06 4897 151.8 12.2 0.011 4015 156.6 19.0 <.001
 Baseball/softball 1266 39.5 17.9 <.001 4821 149.5 11.8 0.14 2753 107.4 14.1 0.44
 Volleyball 36 1.1 11.1 >.99 879 27.3 7.5 <.001 793 30.9 10.8 0.02
 Lacrosse/field hockey 28 0.9 10.7 >.99 302 9.4 21.5 <.001 553 21.6 25.1 <.001
 Touch/flag football 85 2.7 21.2 0.005 309 9.6 14.2 0.08 242 9.4 17.4 0.09
 Rugby 0 0.0 48 1.5 33.3 <.001 237 9.2 29.1 <.001
 Other team sports 239 7.5 12.6 0.61 1337 41.4 10.8 0.76 1023 39.9 13.3 0.75
Individual sports 755 23.6 8.7 0.02 2542 78.8 10.2 0.15 2865 111.7 13 0.32
 Wrestling 277 8.7 9.4 0.27 1419 44 11.5 0.64 1876 73.2 13.7 0.94
 Martial arts 106 3.3 8.5 0.33 259 8.0 10 0.58 160 6.2 13.1 0.85
 Racquet 16 0.5 6.3 >.99 79 2.4 8.9 0.53 91 3.5 7.7 0.10
 Golf 58 1.8 17.2 0.17 58 1.8 15.5 0.28 43 1.7 16.3 0.61
 Boxinge <10 40 1.2 2.5 0.12 115 4.5 7.8 0.07
 Bowling 44 1.4 2.3 0.06 34 1.1 0 0.03 28 1.1 0.0 0.03
 Track and fielde <10 39 1.2 5.1 0.31 58 2.3 10.3 0.46
 Other individual sports 250 7.8 7.6 0.05 614 19 8.5 0.04 494 19.3 13.4 0.86
Fall/struck by/against in sports 2724 85.1 15.2 <.001 11,714 363.2 15.8 <.001 9496 370.3 19.7 <.001
Other team/individual sports, NEC 128 4.0 9.4 0.45 375 11.6 10.1 0.55 276 10.8 12 0.41
Dancing and rhythmic movement 1009 31.5 5.9 <.001 2604 80.7 10.1 0.09 1904 74.2 14.5 0.24
 Cheerleading 103 3.2 10.7 0.80 1006 31.2 16.6 <.001 971 37.9 20.2 <.001
 Gymnastics 563 17.6 5.0 <.001 938 29.1 7.0 <.001 295 11.5 10.2 0.08
 Other dancing/rhythmic movement 343 10.7 6.1 0.002 660 20.5 4.4 <.001 638 24.9 8.0 <.001
Cardio and strength training 4453 139.1 13.0 0.001 6084 188.6 6.3 <.001 4876 190.1 4.8 <.001
 Running 3253 101.6 14.5 <.001 3948 122.4 6.7 <.001 1929 75.2 5.4 <.001
 Walking 1071 33.4 8.9 0.007 1631 50.6 6.4 <.001 1609 62.7 5.3 <.001
 Other cardio 64 2.0 9.4 0.60 134 4.2 2.2 0.001 123 4.8 4.1 0.002
 Strength training 63 2.0 12.7 0.76 367 11.4 4.1 <.001 1211 47.2 3.3 <.001
 Yogae <10 <10 <10
Play/unstructured activities 12,188 380.6 8.1 <.001 5039 156.2 7.5 <.001 982 38.3 9.0 <.001
 Fall from playground equipment 9290 290.1 8.9 <.001 2246 69.6 9.7 0.03 275 10.7 13.8 0.93
 Trampoline 2396 74.8 4.6 <.001 1816 56.3 3.6 <.001 411 16.0 4.1 <.001
 Frisbee 12 0.4 8.3 >.99 61 1.9 11.5 0.93 79 3.1 12.7 0.80
 Jumping rope 58 1.8 8.6 0.49 74 2.3 4.1 0.05 15 0.6 6.7 0.71
 Activities involving physical games 432 13.5 9.5 0.19 842 26.1 10.0 0.30 202 7.9 10.9 0.25
Pedal cycle 9145 285.6 12.8 <.001 8713 270.1 10.6 0.14 3126 121.9 14.3 0.25
 Nontraffic 8297 259.1 12.7 <.001 7775 241 10.4 0.045 2519 98.2 14.1 0.46
 Traffic 210 6.6 25.7 <.001 382 11.8 24.1 <.001 414 16.1 17.6 0.02
 Unspecified 638 19.9 8.9 0.04 556 17.2 4.3 <.001 193 7.5 9.8 0.12
Activities involving water 1001 31.3 13.1 0.11 1528 47.4 14.8 <.001 1360 53 15.0 0.14
 Waterskiing 17 0.5 47.1 <.001 77 2.4 27.3 <.001 118 4.6 23.7 0.001
 Other activities involving water 984 30.7 12.5 0.32 1451 45.0 14.1 <.001 1242 48.4 14.2 0.58
Other recreational activities 7244 226.2 11.7 0.56 14,149 438.6 10.5 0.02 9381 365.8 13.9 0.45
 Roller skating/skateboarding 2428 75.8 7.5 <.001 6514 201.9 8.0 <.001 3434 133.9 11.5 <.001
 Snow/off-road vehicles 1257 39.3 16.8 <.001 2791 86.5 14.5 <.001 2429 94.7 15.9 0.001
 Snow skiing, snowboarding, etc. 541 16.9 22.4 <.001 1706 52.9 14.0 <.001 1527 59.5 17.3 <.001
 Animal being ridden 414 12.9 21.5 <.001 978 30.4 20.9 <.001 1123 43.8 20.7 <.001
 Scooter 1433 45.1 11.4 0.96 929 28.8 9.3 0.07 123 4.8 2.4 <.001
 Air gun 377 11.8 2.7 <.001 768 23.8 2.3 <.001 448 17.5 1.1 <.001
 Climbing/rappelling 794 24.8 8.7 0.01 463 14.4 4.8 <.001 297 11.6 5.7 <.001
Place of recreation/sport 4293 134.1 13.0 0.001 6387 198 9.4 <.001 4356 169.9 9.9 <.001
Total 49,491 1545.5 11.5 94,885 2941.6 11.1 69,142 2696.3 13.6
  1. aAmong ED visits with more than one sports and recreation-related E-code, categorization was based on the most specific E-code. In instances when two or more E-codes were the same level of specificity, categorization was based on the first-listed E-code
  2. bSport/recreational activity designations have been abbreviated for display; for complete descriptions, please see Table 1
  3. CPopulation-based incidence rates are per 100,000 person-years
  4. dPearson chi-square tests (expected cell counts > 5) and Fisher’s Exact tests used (expected cell counts < 5) were used for calculation of p-values
  5. eIn order to protect patient anonymity, cells with counts of 1–9 ED visits are suppressed