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Table 5 Sex-specific rates of sports/recreation-related injuries and proportions of TBI among school-age children: NC, 2010–2014

From: Characteristics of sports and recreation-related emergency department visits among school-age children and youth in North Carolina, 2010–2014

Injury sport/recreational activitya,b Sex
Boys Girls
No. Rate (95% CI)c % with TBI P-valued No. Rate (95% CI)c % with TBI P-valued
Team sports 56,562 1231.9 (1221.8–1242.1) 12.5 0.32 16,256 369.4 (363.8–375.1) 12.9 <.001
 American tackle football 23,603 514.1 (507.5–520.7) 14.9 <.001 817 18.6 (17.3–19.9) 6.9 <.001
 Basketball 18,204 396.5 (390.8–402.3) 7.7 <.001 5137 116.7 (113.6–120.0) 12.7 <.001
 Soccer 5930 129.2 (125.9–132.5) 13.6 0.02 4177 94.9 (92.1–97.8) 16.1 <.001
 Baseball/softball 5315 115.8 (112.7–118.9) 14.9 <.001 3524 80.1 (77.5–82.8) 11.1 0.52
 Volleyball 288 6.3 (5.6–7.0) 6.9 0.004 1420 32.3 (30.6–34.0) 9.6 0.14
 Lacrosse/field hockey 695 15.1 (14.1–16.3) 22.6 <.001 188 4.3 (3.7–4.9) 26.6 <.001
 Touch/flag football 519 11.3 (10.4–12.3) 17.0 0.003 117 2.7 (2.2–3.2) 13.7 0.31
 Rugby 232 5.1 (4.4–5.7) 29.3 <.001 53 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 32.1 <.001
 Other team sports 1776 38.7 (36.9–40.5) 11.9 0.36 823 18.7 (17.5–20.0) 12.2 0.21
Individual sports 5023 109.4 (106.4–112.5) 12.0 0.17 1139 25.9 (24.4–27.4) 8.6 0.02
 Wrestling 3256 70.9 (68.5–73.4) 12.9 0.55 316 7.2 (6.4–8.0) 7.9 0.10
 Martial arts 361 7.9 (7.1–8.7) 12.5 0.94 164 3.7 (3.2–4.3) 6.7 0.09
 Racquet 90 2.0 (1.6–2.4) 10.0 0.46 96 2.2 (1.8–2.7) 6.3 0.15
 Golf 111 2.4 (2.0–2.9) 15.3 0.39 48 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 18.8 0.08
 Boxing 144 3.1 (2.7–3.7) 6.3 0.02 12 0.3 (0.2–0.5) 8.3 >.99
 Bowling 52 1.1 (0.9–1.5) 1.9 0.02 54 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 0.0 0.004
 Track and field 59 1.3 (1.0–1.7) 6.8 0.24 41 0.9 (0.7–1.3) 9.8 >.99
 Other individual sports 950 20.7 (19.4–22.0) 10.0 0.02 408 9.3 (8.4–10.2) 10.3 0.74
Fall/struck by/against in sports 18,414 401.0 (395.3–406.9) 17.2 <.001 5518 125.4 (122.1–128.7) 17.7 <.001
Other team/individual sports, NEC 496 10.8 (9.9–11.8) 10.7 0.20 283 6.4 (5.7–7.2) 10.6 0.92
Dancing and rhythmic movement 587 12.8 (11.8–13.9) 8.9 0.006 4930 112.0 (108.9–115.2) 11.1 0.48
 Cheerleading 38 0.8 (0.6–1.1) 10.5 >.99 2042 46.4 (44.4–48.5) 18.1 <.001
 Gymnastics 250 5.4 (4.8–6.2) 10.4 0.30 1546 35.1 (33.4–36.9) 6.3 <.001
 Other dancing/rhythmic movement 299 6.5 (5.8–7.3) 7.4 0.006 1342 30.5 (28.9–32.2) 5.9 <.001
Cardio and strength training 8601 187.3 (183.4–191.3) 9.5 <.001 6810 154.7 (151.1–158.5) 5.7 <.001
 Running 5257 114.5 (111.4–117.6) 11.4 0.009 3872 88.0 (85.3–90.8) 6.2 <.001
 Walking 1930 42.0 (40.2–44.0) 8.4 <.001 2381 54.1 (52.0–56.3) 5.2 <.001
 Other cardio 152 3.3 (2.8–3.9) 6.6 0.03 168 3.8 (3.3–4.4) 2.4 <.001
 Strength training 1258 27.4 (25.9–29.0) 3.4 <.001 383 8.7 (7.9–9.6) 5.2 <.001
 Yogae <10 <10
Play/unstructured activities 9633 209.8 (205.7–214.0) 8.8 <.001 8575 194.9 (190.8–199.0) 7.0 <.001
 Fall from playground equipment 6150 133.9 (130.6–137.3) 9.9 <.001 5660 128.6 (125.3–132.0) 8.4  
 Trampoline 2420 52.7 (50.6–54.8) 5.4 <.001 2203 50.1 (48.0–52.2) 2.9 <.001
 Frisbee 119 2.6 (2.2–3.1) 10.1 0.41 33 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 18.2 0.16
 Jumping rope 43 0.9 (0.7–1.3) 11.6 0.85 104 2.4 (2.0–2.9) 3.8 0.02
 Activities involving physical games 901 19.6 (18.4–20.9) 10.3 0.04 575 13.1 (12.0–14.2) 9.4 0.28
Pedal cycle 14,561 317.1 (312.0–322.3) 13.4 0.004 6420 145.9 (142.4–149.5) 9.3 <.001
 Nontraffic 12,757 277.8 (273.1–282.7) 13.3 0.02 5832 132.5 (129.2–136.0) 9.1 <.001
 Traffic 845 18.4 (17.2–19.7) 21.1 <.001 160 3.6 (3.1–4.2) 25.6 <.001
 Unspecified 959 20.9 (19.6–22.3) 7.8 <.001 428 9.7 (8.8–10.7) 5.8 <.001
Activities involving water 2397 52.2 (50.2–54.3) 14.4 0.006 1492 33.9 (32.2–35.7) 14.4 <.001
 Waterskiing 133 2.9 (2.4–3.4) 26.3 <.001 79 1.8 (1.4–2.2) 27.8 <.001
 Other activities involving water 2264 49.3 (47.3–51.4) 13.7 0.10 1413 32.1 (30.5–33.8) 13.7 <.001
Other recreational activities 19,297 420.3 (414.4–426.3) 12.3 0.15 11,475 260.8 (256.0–265.6) 11.1 0.27
 Roller skating/ skateboarding 8012 174.5 (170.7–178.4) 11.0 <.001 4364 99.2 (96.3–102.2) 4.9 <.001
 Snow/off-road vehicles 4541 98.9 (96.1–101.8) 15.1 <.001 1935 44.0 (42.1–46.0) 16.4 <.001
 Snow skiing, snowboarding, etc. 2470 53.8 (51.7–56.0) 17.7 <.001 1304 29.6 (28.1–31.3) 14.4 <.001
 Animal being ridden 627 13.7 (12.6–14.8) 16.9 0.001 1887 42.9 (41.0–44.9) 22.2 <.001
 Scooter 1321 28.8 (27.3–30.4) 12.5 0.91 1164 26.5 (25.0–28.0) 7.6 <.001
 Air gun 1380 30.1 (28.5–31.7) 2.2 <.001 213 4.8 (4.2–5.5) 1.4 <.001
 Climbing/rappelling 946 20.6 (19.3–22.0) 7.0 <.001 608 13.8 (12.8–15.0) 6.9 0.002
Place of recreation/sport 9434 205.5 (201.4–209.7) 10.7 <.001 5602 127.3 (124.0–130.7) 10.3 0.23
Total 145,005 3158.2 (3141.9–3174.5) 12.6 68,500 1556.6 (1545.0–1568.3) 10.8
  1. Missing: 13 missing sex
  2. Abbreviations: No. number, CI confidence interval, TBI traumatic brain injury, NEC not elsewhere classifiable
  3. aAmong ED visits with more than one sports and recreation-related E-code, categorization was based on the most specific E-code. In instances when two or more E-codes were the same level of specificity, categorization was based on the first-listed E-code
  4. bSport/recreational activity designations have been abbreviated for display; for complete descriptions, please see Table 1
  5. cPopulation-based incidence rates are per 100,000 person-years
  6. dPearson chi-square tests (expected cell counts > 5) and Fisher’s Exact tests used (expected cell counts < 5) were used for calculation of p-values
  7. eIn order to protect patient anonymity, cells with counts of 1–9 ED visits are suppressed