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Table 2 Emergency department (ED) utilization and demographic characteristics of the study sample by case-control status, Emergency Department Discharge Data, California State Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD), 2008–2013

From: Association between emergency department utilization and the risk of child maltreatment in young children

Characteristics Cases (n = 3772) Controls (n = 7544) p-value
N % N %
Number of ED visits under four years of age
 1 1245 33.0 3713 49.2 < 0.001
 2 to 3 1305 34.6 2470 32.7
 4 or more 1222 32.4 1361 18.0
Sex
 Female 2033 53.9 4048 53.7 0.81
 Male 1739 46.1 3496 46.3
Race/Ethnicity
 White 1156 30.7 1686 22.4 < 0.001
 Black or African American 514 13.6 859 11.4
 Hispanic 1846 48.9 4269 56.6
 Asian/Pacific Islander 97 2.6 393 5.2
 Other 159 4.2 337 4.5
Insurance Type
 Private insurance 766 20.3 2102 27.9 < 0.001
 Public insurance 2617 69.4 4654 61.7
 Uninsured 389 10.3 788 10.5
Area of residency
 Urban 2069 54.9 4717 62.5 < 0.001
 Rural 1703 45.2 2827 37.5