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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for risk of child maltreatment by ED utilization and demographic characteristics from nested case-control analysis, Emergency Department Discharge Data, California State Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD), 2008–2013

From: Association between emergency department utilization and the risk of child maltreatment in young children

Characteristics OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Number of ED visits under four years of age
 1 (Reference) 1.00 1.00
 2 to 3 1.80 (1.63–1.99) 1.72 (1.55–1.90)
 4 or more 3.37 (3.00–3.78) 3.03 (2.69–3.41)
Sex
 Female (Reference) 1.00 1.00
 Male 1.01 (0.93–1.09) 1.00 (0.92–1.09)
Race/Ethnicity
 White (Reference) 1.00 1.00
 Black or African American 0.86 (0.76–0.99) 0.61 (0.55–0.67)
 Hispanic 0.63 (0.57–0.69) 0.85 (0.73–0.98)
 Asian/Pacific Islander 0.36 (0.28–0.45) 0.46 (0.36–0.58)
 Other 0.68 (0.55–0.83) 0.72 (0.58–0.89)
Insurance Type
 Private insurance (Reference) 1.00 1.00
 Public insurance 1.56 (1.41–1.71) 1.36 (1.22–1.51)
 Uninsured 1.36 (1.17–1.58) 1.22 (1.05–1.43)
Area of residency
 Urban (Reference) 1.00 1.00
 Rural 1.36 (1.26–1.47) 1.18 (1.09–1.29)