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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for risk of child maltreatment by ED utilization and demographic characteristics from sensitivity analysis among sub-sample of children with explicit maltreatment diagnosis, Emergency Department Discharge Data, California State Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD), 2008–2013

From: Association between emergency department utilization and the risk of child maltreatment in young children

Characteristics Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Number of ED visits under four years of age
 1 (Reference) 1.00
 2 to 3 2.30 (1.44–3.68)
 4 or more 4.18 (1.98–8.84)
Sex
 Female (Reference) 1.00
 Male 0.92 (0.61–1.38)
Race/Ethnicitya
 White (Reference) 1.00
 Black or African American 1.29 (0.69–2.34)
 Hispanic 0.54 (0.33–0.88)
 Asian/Pacific Islander/Other 0.42 (0.18–0.98)
Insurance Typea
 Private insurance (Reference) 1.00
 Public insurance/Uninsured 1.30 (0.79–2.15)
Area of residency
 Urban (Reference) 1.00
 Rural 1.29 (0.85–1.97)
  1. aSome subgroups were combined in the sensitivity analysis due to small sample size