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Table 1 Univariate associations between proposed risk factors and concussion

From: A cohort study to identify and evaluate concussion risk factors across multiple injury settings: findings from the CARE Consortium

  Any Concussion % (n) Mean (SD) Median [IQR] Sport % (n) Mean (SD) Median [IQR] Academy Training % (n) Mean (SD) Median [IQR] Free Time % (n) Mean (SD) Median [IQR]
Sport Level
 Varsity 9.14% (268)*** 5.81% (169)*** 1.82% (53)** 0.96% (28)
 Club 7.09% (132) 4.25% (79) 1.99% (37) 0.97% (18)
 Intramural 5.65% (301) 1.23% (65) 2.85% (151) 1.09% (58)
Sex
 Female 11.30% (227)*** 4.36% (105)*** 3.91% (94)*** 2.24% (54)***
 Male 5.84% (460) 2.83% (217) 1.95% (150) 0.81% (62)
Contact Levela
 Contact   8.12% (144)***   
 Limited-Contact   3.83% (14)   
 Non-Contact   1.55% (11)   
Freshman
 Yes 13.38% (369)*** 5.02% (137)*** 6.77% (185)*** 1.43% (39)
 No 4.82% (355) 2.51% (184) 0.79% (58) 1.05% (39)
Site
 1 6.15% (280)*** 3.31% (150)** 1.66% (75)*** 0.95% (43)
 2 9.00% (421) 3.45% (160) 3.60% (167) 1.40% (65)
 3 2.71% (25) 1.30% (12) 0.22% (2) 0.87% (8)
Previous Concussion
 Yes 10.72% (215)*** 5.39% (107)*** 3.37% (67)** 1.46% (29)*
 No 5.92% (475) 2.50% (200) 2.14% (171) 0.94% (75)
Headaches in past 3 months
 Yes 11.18% (251)*** 4.64% (103)*** 4.64% (103)*** 1.31% (29)
 No 5.67% (438) 2.64% (203) 1.77% (103) 0.96% (74)
Diagnosed Migraine Headache
 Yes 11.37% (29)** 5.16% (13) 3.97% (10) 1.98% (5)
 No 6.77% (659) 3.02% (292) 2.37% (229) 1.00% (97)
Diagnosed ADD/ADHD
 Yes 12.95% (18)** 3.65% (5) 7.30% (10)** 1.46% (2)
 No 6.73% (661) 3.06% (299) 2.36% (230) 1.02% (100)
Diagnosed Depression
 Yes 13.46% (14)** 3.88% (4) 5.83% (6)* 2.91% (3)
 No 6.83% (676) 3.07% (302) 2.38% (234) 1.01% (99)
Brief Sensation Seeking Scale 3.37 (0.66) 3.38 (0.69) 3.35 (0.57) 3.46 (0.76)
Baseline SCAT Symptoms
 Number 2.00 [0.00–6.00]*** 2.00 [0.00–5.00]*** 4.00 [1.00–9.50]*** 2.00 [0.00–5.00]
 Severity 4.00 [0.00–11.00]*** 2.00 [0.00–9.00]*** 7.00 [1.50–18.00]*** 3.00 [0.00–7.00]*
Baseline BSI Total 39.00 [36.00–48.00]*** 36.00 [36.00–47.00]* 45.00 [36.00–52.00]*** 36.00 [36.00–45.00]
 Somatization 42.00 [42.00–50.00]*** 42.00 [42.00–48.00]** 48.00 [42.00–58.00]*** 42.00 [41.00–48.00]
 Depression 42.00 [42.00–45.00] 42.00 [42.00–45.00] 42.00 [42.00–48.00]*** 42.00 [40.00–45.00]*
 Anxiety 39.00 [39.00–47.00] 39.00 [39.00–47.00] 39.00 [39.00–48.00]*** 39.00 [38.00–45.00]
  1. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001
  2. a Contact level only evaluated for varsity cadets
  3. Full tables available in additional file
  4. Percentages and sample size (% (n)); mean and standard deviation (mean (SD)); median and IQR (median [IQR])