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Table 1 Participation in the Health and Quality of Life 15 Years after 9/11 Study by demographic characteristics, injury, and health history, and World Trade Center (WTC) exposures

From: Conducting a study to assess the long-term impacts of injury after 9/11: participation, recall, and description

  Participated (N = 4033, 76.1%) Did not participate (1264, 23.9%)  
N (%) N (%) aRRa (95% CI)
Injury status as reported at Wave 1
 Injured 2038 (75.5) 661 (24.5) 1.02 (0.90, 1.15)
 Non-injured 1995 (76.8) 603 (23.2) 1.00 (Reference)
Age at time of study invitation (years)
 31–49 928 (69.8) 402 (30.2) 1.00 (Reference)
 50–59 1308 (76.2) 408 (23.8) 0.74 (0.65, 0.85)
 60–69 1298 (79.7) 330 (20.3) 0.67 (0.58, 0.78)
 70–94 499 (80.1) 124 (19.9) 0.61 (0.48, 0.78)
Sex
 Men 2311 (77.7) 664 (22.3) 1.00 (Reference)
 Women 1722 (74.2) 600 (25.8) 1.06 (0.94, 1.20)
Race/ Ethnicity
 White 2963 (78.1) 829 (21.9) 1.00 (Reference)
 Black 401 (72.5) 152 (27.5) 1.17 (0.98, 1.40)
 Latino 399 (70.0) 171 (30.0) 1.19 (1.01, 1.40)
 Asian 159 (72.6) 60 (27.4) 1.15 (0.90, 1.48)
 Other race 111 (68.1) 52 (31.9) 1.38 (1.07, 1.78)
Education at Wave 4
  ≤ High school/ GED 434 (73.3) 158 (26.7) 1.00 (Reference)
 Some college 1128 (75.5) 366 (24.5) 0.83 (0.70, 0.99)
 College 1287 (77.2) 381 (22.8) 0.77 (0.64, 0.92)
 Graduate degree 1152 (78.2) 322 (21.8) 0.72 (0.60, 0.88)
Marital Status at Wave 4
 Married/cohabitating 2742 (77.6) 792 (22.4) 1.00 (Reference)
 Divorced 508 (71.5) 202 (28.5) 1.23 (1.06, 1.43)
 Widowed 156 (77.6) 45 (22.4) 1.01 (0.74, 1.39)
 Never married 583 (75.8) 186 (24.2) 1.02 (0.87, 1.20)
Income at Wave 4
  ≤ $50,000 696 (73.9) 246 (26.1) 1.00 (Reference)
 $50,000–$150,000 1912 (77.4) 559 (22.6) 0.93 (0.79, 1.08)
  ≥ $150,000 1194 (76.0) 378 (24.0) 1.08 (0.90, 1.30)
Employment status at Wave 4
 Employed 2418 (75.0) 808 (25.0) 1.00 (Reference)
 Retired 1050 (80.6) 252 (19.4) 0.91 (0.77, 1.07)
 Student/Homemaker 63 (68.5) 29 (31.5) 1.23 (0.89, 1.69)
 Unemployed due to health reasons 289 (75.5) 94 (24.5) 0.80 (0.63, 1.00)
 Unemployed due to other reasons 146 (78.1) 41 (21.9) 0.81 (0.59, 1.11)
Eligibility group
 Rescue and recovery worker 1114 (76.9) 334 (23.1) 1.00 (Reference)
 Lower Manhattan resident 399 (70.9) 164 (29.1) 1.22 (0.99, 1.50)
 Lower Manhattan area worker/passerby 2520 (76.7) 766 (23.3) 1.03 (0.89, 1.19)
WTC exposure score
 None/low 682 (78.3) 189 (21.7) 1.00 (Reference)
 Medium 1585 (76.0) 501 (24.0) 1.05 (0.89, 1.23)
 High 1373 (75.4) 448 (24.6) 1.08 (0.90, 1.29)
 Very high 393 (75.7) 126 (24.3) 0.97 (0.76, 1.24)
Ever-PTSDb
 No 2269 (77.7) 650 (22.3) 1.00 (Reference)
 Yes 1519 (75.3) 498 (24.7) 0.96 (0.84, 1.09)
Self-rated health at Wave 4
 Excellent 347 (76.9) 104 (23.1) 0.74 (0.55, 0.98)
 Very Good 1113 (79.1) 294 (20.9) 0.64 (0.50, 0.82)
 Good 1485 (77.2) 439 (22.8) 0.74 (0.59, 0.92)
 Fair 842 (73.9) 298 (26.1) 0.85 (0.68, 1.06)
 Poor 209 (70.4) 88 (29.6) 1.00 (Reference)
  1. a Risk ratio models the outcome as not participating. Model controls for all factors listed in the table
  2. b Ever had a PCL score ≥ 44 on Wave 1, Wave 2, Wave 3, and/or Wave 4