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Table 1 Short description of drowning stages, according to Szpilman classification (Szpilman et al., 1997 and 2012)

From: Characteristics of drowning victims in a surf environment: a 6-year retrospective study in southwestern France

Stage Symptomatology
0 (rescue) None
1 Cough, normal pulmonary auscultation
2 Cough, rales in some pulmonary fields
3 Acute pulmonary edema with normal blood pressure
4 Acute pulmonary edema, hypotension or shock
5 Respiratory arrest and/or coma
6 Cardiac arrest