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Table 2 Risk of facial injury among victims with head impact

From: Does a full-face helmet effectively protect against facial injuries?

  Cases Controls   
%w of victims with facial injury (Nobs = 37) %w of victims without head injury (Nobs = 325) Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
Type of helmet    p < 0.001 p = 0.020
 Not full-face 56.0 19.3 Reference Reference
 Full-face 44.0 80.7 0.19 (0.08–0.44) 0.31 (0.11–0.83)
Object hit by the head    p < 0.001 p < 0.001
 Ground/road 23.1 75.6 Reference Reference
 Vehicle 46.4 14.4 10.5 (3.49–31.65) 7.66 (2.38–24.65)
 Fixed object 8.2 2.8 9.55 (1.95–46.85) 9.27 (2.14–40.07)
 Unknown 22.3 7.2 10.1 (2.88–35.35) 7.29 (1.89–28.20)
Gender    p = 0.889  
 Male 90.3 91.1 Reference  
 Female 9.7 8.9 1.10 (0.30–3.99)  
Age    p = 0.720  
 14–24 42.2 49.2 0.72 (0.29–1.76)  
 25–49 49.7 41.5 Reference  
 50+ 8.1 9.3 0.73 (0.24–2.24)  
Alcohol consumption    p = 0.366  
 No 95.6 98.0 Reference  
 Yes 4.4 2.0 2.31 (0.37–14.33)  
MTW category (cylinder capacity)    p = 0.505  
 Moped (< 50 cm3) 32.4 38.0 Reference  
 Light motorcycle (50–125 cm3) 23.0 14.4 1.88 (0.58–6.14)  
 Heavy motorcycle (> 125 cm3) 44.6 47.6 1.10 (0.41–2.98)  
Type of accident    p = 0.496  
 Only MTW 26.7 33.2 Reference  
 Other 73.3 66.8 1.37 (0.55–3.37)  
Driving speed of MTW Mean of driving speed (km/h) p = 0.729  
47.7 49.0 1.00 (0.98–1.01)