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Table 1 Child restraint use among infants aged 0 to < 2 years involved in fatal crashes, FARS 2008–2015

From: Restraint use and injury in forward and rear-facing infants and toddlers involved in a fatal motor vehicle crash on a U. S. Roadway

Variables Child Restraint a n (%) Other Restraint a n (%) Unrestrained n (%) Unknown n (%) Total Chi-square χ2(p value) b
Total (n, row%) 4242 (85.4) 224 (4.5) 330 (6.7) 170 (3.4) 4966  
Passenger characteristics
 Passenger age (years)       1.9 (0.60)
  0 to < 1 1857 (43.8) 88 (39.3) 145 (43.9) 72 (42.4) 2162 (43.5)  
  1 to < 2 2385 (56.2) 136(60.7) 185 (56.1) 98 (57.6) 2804 (56.5)  
 Passenger gender       2.3 (0.50)
  Male 2210 (52.2) 117 (52.2) 169 (51.2) 98 (58.0) 2594 (52.4)  
  Female 2021 (47.8) 107 (47.8) 161 (48.8) 71 (42.0) 2360 (47.6)  
 Seating position       11.1 (0.011)
  Center-seated 1221 (29.4) 60 (27.4) 104 (38.7) 35 (30.2) 1420 (29.8)  
  Outboard-seated 2936 (70.6) 159 (72.6) 165 (61.3) 81 (69.8) 3341 (70.1)  
 Injury severity       229.8 (< 0.0001)
 Not injured 1687 (39.8) 94 (42.0) 27 (8.2) 52 (30.6) 1860 (37.4)  
  Injured 1124 (26.5) 61 (27.2) 122 (37.0) 47 (27.6) 1354 (27.3)  
  Died 583 (13.7) 31 (13.8) 132 (40.0) 42 (24.7) 788 (15.9)  
 Unknown 848 (20.0) 38 (17.0) 49 (14.9) 29 (17.1) 964 (19.4)  
Driver characteristics
 Driver age (years)       41.4 (< 0.0001)
  < 20 270 (6.4) 12 (5.4) 35 (10.6) NR 324 (6.5)  
  20 to 29 2149 (50.7) 98 (43.8) 148 (44.8) 73 (42.9) 2468 (49.7)  
  30 to 64 1746 (41.2) 113 (50.5) 133 (40.3) 90 (53.0) 2082 (41.9)  
  > =65 77 (1.8) NR 14 (4.2) NR 92 (1.9)  
 Driver gender       12.7 (0.0054)
  Male 1697 (40.0) 102 (45.5) 156 (47.3) 82 (48.2) 2037 (41.0)  
  Female 2546 (60.0) 122 (54.5) 174 (52.7) 88 (51.8) 2929 (59.0)  
 Driver restraint status       113.8 (< 0.0001)
  Restrained 3387 (83.5) 197 (90.4) 183 (60.8) 80 (73.4) 3847 (82.0)  
  Unrestrained 671 (16.5) 21 (9.6) 118 (39.2) 29 (26.6) 839 (17.9)  
 Driver’s alcohol status       34.0 (< 0.0001)
  Positive 225 (5.3) 17 (7.6) 46 (13.9) 14 (8.2) 302 (6.1)  
  Negative 1367 (32.2) 52 (23.2) 105 (31.8) 44 (25.9) 1568 (31.6)  
  Unknown 2650 (62.5) 155 (69.2) 179 (54.2) 112 (65.9) 3096 (62.3)  
 Driver’s drug status       5.5 (0.14)
  Positive 429 (10.1) 13 (5.8) 42 (12.7) 18 (10.6) 502 (10.1)  
  Negative 2253 (53.1) 104 (46.4) 160 (48.5) 91 (53.5) 2608 (52.5)  
  Unknown 1560 (36.8) 107 (47.8) 128 (38.8) 61 (35.9) 1856 (37.4)  
 Previous violations       13.7 (0.0033)
  Yes 1448 (34.8) 79 (35.3) 125 (37.9) 77 (47.2) 1729 (35.6)  
  No 2717 (65.2) 135 (60.3) 187 (56.7) 86 (52.8) 3124 (64.4)  
Vehicle characteristics
 Vehicle type       11.7 (0.46)
  Passenger car 1999 (47.1) 101 (45.3) 133 (40.4) 72 (42.35) 2305 (46.5)  
  SUV 1369 (32.2) 66 (29.6) 118 (35.8) 55 (32.4) 1608 (32.5)  
  Van 480 (11.3) 34 (15.3) 41 (12.5) 22 (12.9) 577 (11.6)  
  Pickup truck 384 (9.1) 22 (9.9) 37 (11.3) 19 (11.2) 462 (9.3)  
  Other NR NR NR NR 4 (0.1)  
Crash-level characteristics
 Day/Night       17.9 (0.0005)
  Day 2711 (64.0) 137 (61.2) 178 (53.9) 93 (55.4) 3119 (62.9)  
  Night 1524 (36.0) 86 (38.4) 152 (46.1) 75 (44.6) 1837 (37.1)  
 Weekday/Weekend       12.6 (0.0057)
  Weekday 2765 (65.3) 143 (63.8) 235 (71.2) 93 (55.4) 3241 (65.3)  
  Weekend 1470 (34.7) 81 (36.2) 95 (28.8) 75 (44.6) 1725 (34.7)  
 Weekday rush hour       4.5 (0.21)
  Yes 1188 (28.1) 51 (22.9) 81 (24.6) 45 (26.8) 1365 (2.5)  
  No 3047 (72.0) 172 (77.1) 249 (75.5) 123 (73.2) 3591 (72.5)  
 Roadway type       11.4 (0.0097)
  Expressway 2833 (69.4) 127 (59.4) 215 (68.3) 104 (63.8) 3278 (68.7)  
  Surface street 1250 (30.6) 87 (40.7) 100 (31.8) 59 (36.2) 1496 (31.3)  
 Urban/Rural       19.2 (0.0003)
  Urban 1597 (43.8) 102 (53.1) 106 (37.2) 75 (55.6) 1880 (44.2)  
  Rural 2049 (56.2) 90 (46.9) 179 (62.8) 60 (44.4) 2378 (55.9)  
  1. aChild restraint include booster seat, rear-facing/forward-facing car seat, and child restraint type unknown. Other restraint includes lap belt, shoulder belt, and helmet
  2. bUnknown categories were not used in the calculation of the chi-squares; NR not reported due to small numbers