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Table 2 Predictors of unrestrained infants aged 0 to < 2 years involved in fatal crashes, FARS 2008–2015

From: Restraint use and injury in forward and rear-facing infants and toddlers involved in a fatal motor vehicle crash on a U. S. Roadway

Variables Unadjusted, unrestrained OR (95% CI) Multivariable adjusted, unrestrained OR (95% CI)
Passenger characteristics
Passenger age (years)
 0 to < 1 Ref  
 1 to < 2 0.98 (0.79–1.23)  
Passenger gender
 Male Ref  
 Female 1.04 (0.83–1.30)  
Seating position
 Center seated 1.52 (1.18–1.96) 1.55 (1.19–2.03)
 Seated outboard Ref Ref
Driver characteristics
Driver age (years)
 < 20 1.97 (1.35–2.88) 2.18 (1.42–3.34)
 20 to 29 Ref Ref
 30 to 64 1.09 (0.85–1.38) 1.16 (0.87–1.54)
 ≥ 65 2.43 (1.29–4.57) 2.00 (0.88–4.54)
Driver gender
 Male 1.33 (1.06–1.66)  
 Female Ref  
Driver restraint status
 Restrained Ref Ref
 Unrestrained 3.34 (2.61–4.27) 3.17 (2.38–4.21)
Driver’s alcohol status
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 2.57 (1.77–3.73) 2.21 (1.42–3.44)
 Unknown 0.86 (0.67–1.11) 1.03 (0.77–1.39)
Driver’s drug status
 No Ref  
 Yes 1.40 (0.98–2.00)  
 Unknown 1.13 (0.89–1.44)  
Previous violations
 No Ref  
 Yes 1.25 (0.99–1.58)  
Vehicle characteristics
Vehicle type
 Passenger car Ref  
 SUV 1.30 (1.00–1.68)  
 Van 1.44 (0.99–2.10)  
 Pickup truck 1.26 (0.88–1.81)  
Crash-level characteristics
Day/Night
 Day Ref  
 Night 1.51 (1.21–1.89)  
Weekday/Weekend
 Weekday 1.32 (1.03–1.69) 1.52 (1.12–2.01)
 Weekend Ref Ref
Weekday rush hour
 Yes Ref  
 No 1.18 (0.91–1.53)  
Roadway type
 Expressway Ref  
 Surface Street 1.03 (0.81–1.32)  
Urban/Rural
 Urban Ref  
 Rural 1.34 (1.05–1.72)  
 Unknown 1.15 (0.80–1.65)